Interviews by NameOral Histories
An Associated Press photographer for over forty years, Cabluck was working for the Fort Worth Star-Telegram in 1963. He covered President Kennedy's visit to Fort Worth and Dallas, ending up at Parkland Memorial Hospital after the assassination. Recorded February 3, 2012.
A Fort Worth Star-Telegram photographer in 1963, Cabluck covered President Kennedy in Fort Worth and Dallas. Following the assassination, he went to Parkland Memorial Hospital and then took aerial photographs of Dealey Plaza. Recorded February 8, 2012.
A sixth grader in Shreveport, Louisiana, in 1963, Cagle remembers that classmates at school, on the bus, and in her neighborhood cheered the death of President Kennedy because of his views on civil rights. Recorded January 27, 2014.
An X-Ray Technology School intern at Parkland Memorial Hospital in 1963, Calloway saw the back of President Kennedy's head before he was moved into Trauma Room One. She later worked closely with the Dallas County medical examiner, Dr. Earl F. Rose, and recalled his feelings about the handling of the president's remains. Recorded January 27, 2002.
Camfield is the son of the late Dallas-Fort Worth television personality Bill Camfield. From 1955 to 1972, Bill Camfield worked at local independent KTVT-TV as a writer, reporter and host, best remembered for his character "Icky Twerp," host of the popular children's program Slam Bang Theater. Recorded November 7, 2011.
A Dallas artist and music promoter credited with helping to revitalize the city's Deep Ellum area, Campagna was a second grade student in New Jersey at the time of the assassination. His parents were active members of the John Birch Society. Recorded January 4, 2013.
A Dallas County deputy sheriff in the 1950s, Cannon visited Jack Ruby in prison in 1965 and made detailed notes of the experience. After retiring, Cannon wrote books on Texas history and trivia. Recorded on January 10, 2003.
Canty was an engineer with Western Electric in Chicago in 1963. He recalls that telephone lines went down for several hours following the assassination. Recorded February 7, 2014.
Joyce Pate Capper
The honorary consul to the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg since 1992, Capper was a longtime Fort Worth civic leader whose late husband, A.M. Pate, Jr., founded the Pate Museum of Transportation (1969-2009). As a member of the Junior League of Fort Worth in 1963, she attended President Kennedy's breakfast at the Hotel Texas. Recorded July 14, 2010.
A member of Assault Brigade 2506, Caras served as part of the Bay of Pigs invasion force. Recorded October 29, 2000.
Lt. Gen. Richard Carey
A Marine pilot stationed at the Dallas Naval Air Station, Carey was flying over downtown Dallas and the Dealey Plaza area at the time of the assassination. Recorded January 22, 1995.
Carlson saw Senator John F. Kennedy in Illinois during the 1960 presidential campaign. At the time of the assassination, Carlson was a freshman at the University of Illinois. Recorded March 24, 2010.
Carpenter skipped high school on November 22, 1963, to go with friends to Dallas Love Field to see the president's arrival. He was interviewed with his childhood friend Greg McCone. Recorded June 1, 2012.
A longtime journalist and press secretary for Lady Bird Johnson, Carpenter traveled with the presidential party throughout Texas and wrote the brief statement that President Johnson made to the nation the night of November 22, 1963. Recorded November 15, 2003.
Carr served as attorney general of Texas from 1963 to 1967 and was traveling throughout the state with the presidential party. After the assassination, he served as the Texas liaison to the Warren Commission. Recorded on July 24, 1995.
Dr. James Carrico
A resident in general surgery at Parkland Memorial Hospital in 1963, Carrico was the first physician to see President Kennedy upon his arrival at the hospital. Recorded August 2, 1997.
Maurice C. Carroll
A reporter for the New York Herald Tribune in 1963, Carroll covered the scene at Dallas police headquarters and witnessed the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. He returned to Dallas to cover the Jack Ruby trial in 1964. Carroll wrote attorney Melvin Belli's memoir Dallas Justice (1964) and later authored Accidental Assassin (2013). Recorded November 30, 2007, and January 10 and 11, 2014.
A social worker for more than three decades, Carron was a seventh grader in New York City in 1963. Recorded January 24, 2014.
A United Press International (UPI) reporter at the Dallas bureau, Carter was aboard a motorcade press bus and heard shots fired in Dealey Plaza. He covered the aftermath at Parkland Memorial Hospital and Dallas Love Field. Years later, he became a speechwriter for President Lyndon Johnson. Recorded November 18, 2013.
A longtime writer and editor with Texas Monthly magazine, Cartwright was a sports writer at The Dallas Morning News in 1963. He and his roommate, the late Bud Shrake, often socialized with Jack Ruby and his strippers. Recorded March 18, 2011.
Cason was the widow of Jack C. Cason, who was president of the Texas School Book Depository in 1963. The Casons, a conservative family, feared for President Kennedy's safety during his visit to Dallas. Recorded September 29, 2005.
Considered the "grandmother of women journalists in Dallas," Castleberry was the longtime editor of women's news at the Dallas Times Herald. On the day of the assassination, she was waiting at the Trade Mart to cover Jackie Kennedy's visit to the city. After the shooting, Castleberry worked in the Times Herald newsroom and wrote several human interest stories that weekend. Recorded October 14, 1991, August 19, 2004, August 2, 2006, April 18, 2008, and August 5, 2009.
C. Keith Causey
Causey is the son of the late Max E. Causey, the first juror selected for, and later jury foreman of, the Jack Ruby trial. Recorded August 23, 2002.
As manager of the Playboy Club in Dallas in the mid-1950s, and later the owner and operator of another private club in the 1960s, Ced knew Jack Ruby and often had breakfast with him and other nightclub operators. Recorded March 2, 2009.
An eighth grade Catholic school girl living in California in 1963, Certa was playing the church organ during Mass when the assassination took place. A letter she wrote to Jackie Kennedy two days after the assassination was included in Dr. Ellen Fitzpatrick's Letters to Jackie: Condolences from a Grieving Nation (2010). Recorded February 24, 2011.
A reporter for KRLD-TV in 1963, Ceverha was on vacation in Chicago at the time of the assassination. In 1964, he covered the Ruby trial for KRLD-TV and Westinghouse Broadcasting. Ceverha later became an active political leader and served in the Texas House of Representatives. Recorded May 2, 2005.
A longtime engineer at KRLD-TV, Chamberlain was at the Trade Mart, Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas City Hall, and the Dallas County Jail on the weekend of the assassination. His late wife, Pollyann Chamberlain, was an employee at the Old Red Courthouse and heard the shooting take place. In 1964, Chamberlain's late mother-in-law, Ruth Thornton, was briefly held hostage following a county jail break during the Jack Ruby trial. Recorded May 17, 2006.
Production supervisor at the Kodak lab in Dallas, Chamberlain encountered Abraham Zapruder when his film was brought in to be processed on November 22, 1963. Recorded September 21, 1994.
James F. Chambers, Jr.
Publisher of the Dallas Times Herald for many years, Chambers had several personal contacts with President Kennedy and helped keep his newspaper organized and working during the weekend of the assassination. Recorded June 10, 1994.
An Oak Cliff resident in 1963, Chancellor saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. In 1991, her daughter was an extra in Dealey Plaza during the filming of Oliver Stone's JFK. Recorded July 31, 2009.
One of the youngest U.S. Secret Service agents assigned to the presidential detail, Chandler worked with Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. He was in Washington, D.C., at the time of the assassination. Recorded November 20, 2010.
The Rev. Wally Chappell
A longtime religious leader in Dallas, Chappell was pastor of the Ridgewood Park United Methodist Church in 1963. He held a special prayer service for President Kennedy on Friday evening. Recorded October 6, 2004.
Interviewed with her partner, Robert Staples, Charles was part of the design team for The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza's permanent exhibition, "John F. Kennedy and the Memory of a Nation." Recorded August 30, 1994.
A community leader in the arts, Charlton played a key role in the establishment of the Dallas Museum of Art. In 1963, he was the son-in-law of community leader J. Erik Jonsson. Recorded July 18, 2001.
A Dallas high school student in 1963, Chase was resting in the school nurse's office when she learned of the assassination. Recorded November 9, 2010.
Chayet was a young campaign volunteer for John F. Kennedy in 1960 and Robert Kennedy in 1968. She was a seventh grader in Michigan when the assassination took place. Recorded February 17, 2014.
Twelve years old in 1963, Chazdon wrote a poignant essay about the Kennedy assassination one week later. She shared this essay during her oral history. Recorded October 13, 2011.
One of the Dallas County Historical Foundation's original board members, Cheney had close ties to the Kennedy family. Recorded December 1, 1994.
A local historian, Childers is the author of Historic Dallas Hotels (2010). This lecture on presidential visits to Dallas was recorded during a Museum public program. Recorded February 19, 2007.
William R. Chiles
Co-owner and vice president of Dallas typesetting company Jaggers-Chiles-Stovall, Chiles oversaw the hiring and firing of employee Lee Harvey Oswald, who worked for the business from October 1962 to April 1963. Recorded January 26, 2011.
A Dallas police patrolman in 1963, Chism was assigned to the corner of Mockingbird Lane and Lemmon Avenue during the presidential motorcade. Later, he was taking a robbery victim's statement in the emergency room of Parkland Memorial Hospital when the president arrived. Chism was briefly inside Trauma Room One and offered assistance to nurses, Secret Service agents, and other officials. Recorded February 12, 2008.
Marvin Faye and Rickey Chism
Standing on Elm Street, the Chism family--the late John Chism, his wife Marvin Faye, and three-year-old son Rickey--were close eyewitnesses to the Kennedy assassination. Interviewed at length that day by the Dallas County Sheriff's Department, they have since been reluctant to discuss the subject. Recorded January 11, 2012, January 26 and November 20, 2013.
Serving as a copy editor at the Denton Record-Chronicle in 1963, Chism later worked for other local distinguished newspapers, such as the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, the Dallas Times Herald, and the Dallas Morning News. Recorded May 20, 1995.
Dr. George Christian
Christian was a private assigned to U.S. Army Intelligence at the Pentagon in 1963. He visited the Capitol Rotunda that weekend to pay his respects and captured a color home movie of the Kennedy funeral procession on Pennsylvania Avenue, which he donated to The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza in 2008. Recorded October 28, 2008.
F. Nick Ciacelli
A collector of Kennedy memorabilia since 1963, Ciacelli opened a 1960s-themed McDonald's restaurant in Florida and later developed the traveling exhibition "JFK Remembered." The centerpiece of his collection is a replica Kennedy limousine, used in numerous films and documentaries including Oliver Stone's JFK (1991). Recorded April 8, 2011.
Five years old in 1963, Clark and his family saw the Kennedy motorcade on Lemmon Avenue. Recorded January 20, 2011.
A longtime maintenance manager with Dallas County, Clark has worked with county-owned buildings in the Dealey Plaza area since 1981. He was involved in air conditioning, lighting, and other facilities work during the early days of The Sixth Floor exhibition. Recorded October 25, 2010.
J. David Clayton
A Dallas native, Clayton was a recent graduate of Southern Methodist University in 1963 and was employed by Texas Instruments at the time of the assassination. Recorded September 8, 2010.
Clayton was a history teacher at Thomas Jefferson High School in Dallas in 1963. She was in class with only two students at the time of the assassination because the others had been excused to see the presidential parade. Recorded September 8, 2010.
Clements is the widow of the late W.W. "Foots" Clements, president, CEO, and chairman of the board of the Dr. Pepper Company (1974-80). As vice president of marketing in 1963, W.W. Clements organized the Dr. Pepper bottlers meeting held in Dallas on the same day as the Kennedy assassination. The Clements were later instrumental in the opening of the Dr. Pepper Museum and Free Enterprise Institute in Waco, Texas. Recorded January 23, 2012.
Raymond R. Cline
A Dallas police officer from 1954 to 1977, Cline was assigned to the Dallas Trade Mart for President Kennedy's planned luncheon. He once visited Jack Ruby's Carousel Club after being told that officers received free drinks there. Later in his career, he came to know Marina Oswald when she worked at a Dallas convenience store on his patrol beat. Recorded August 6, 2009.
A Louisiana native, Cloutman has devoted his entire law career to civil rights. Upon moving to Dallas in 1970, he became the lead attorney in the controversial court case to integrate the Dallas Independent School District. He remained with the case until 2003 and argued it before the U.S. Supreme Court. Recorded April 8, 2011.
A longtime executive with the Meadows Foundation in Dallas, Clymer was a senior at Southern Methodist University in 1963. She spent the weekend of the Kennedy assassination with friends in New York City. Recorded April 8, 2008.
A student at a Catholic school in Fort Worth, Coady turned twelve years old on November 22, 1963. That day had a profound impact on her life. Recorded January 7, 2009, and March 16, 2012.
A Dallas social worker in 1963, Coben watched the Kennedy motorcade and witnessed part of the assassination from the second-floor balcony of the Old Red Courthouse. Recorded June 15, 2007.
A reporter with the Associated Press for nearly four decades, Cochran covered President Kennedy in Fort Worth, the assassination aftermath at Parkland Memorial Hospital, and Lee Harvey Oswald's funeral, where he served as a pallbearer. He later covered the Jack Ruby trial. Recorded July 14, 1993, November 19, 1998, and October 14, 2013.
A burglary and theft detective with the Dallas Police Department in 1963, Cody went to the Texas School Book Depository after the assassination. A friend of Jack Ruby's, Cody purchased a gun for Ruby in 1960 that Ruby later used to shoot Lee Harvey Oswald. Recorded October 11, 1999.
A longtime executive with the Woodbine Development Corporation in Dallas, Coffman was attending Southern Methodist University in 1963. After Woodbine purchased the former Hotel Texas property in downtown Fort Worth in 1978, Coffman was involved in the building's renovations. Recorded December 19, 2011.
Leland and Patricia Coggan
Conservative Dallasites who had moved to New York City days prior to the Kennedy assassination, the Coggans were publicly insulted in the aftermath because of their hometown. They returned to Dallas one year later. Recorded March 25, 2013.
A Florida native, Cole was one of five African American students selected for the first school integration in her community. Later in the 1960s, she became active with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recorded November 9, 2010.
An insurance salesman in Dallas, Coleman made a joke about a possible shooting before learning of the assassination. Although not a Kennedy supporter, he was deeply impacted by the president's death. Recorded April 26, 2013.
A Fort Worth resident in 1963, Coleman wrote letters around the world and collected more than 200 newspapers from the days surrounding the assassination. His collection of papers from the United States and 25 other countries, written in 16 languages, was donated to the Museum in 2003. Recorded September 15, 2003.
Coleman, an insurance underwriter at Pacific Indemnity in Dallas, watched the Kennedy motorcade from the corner of Main and Ervay streets. He recalled that twice that week Secret Service agents visited his workplace looking for former employees. Recorded May 23, 2007.
A 23-year-old typist at the Bateson Construction Company in Dallas, Collins watched the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. About one month prior to the assassination, she met Jack Ruby on a downtown street, and he pursued her by telephone for several weeks in the hopes of convincing her to audition at the Carousel Club. Recorded November 2, 2007.
William E. Collins
A local attorney in Dallas, Collins was one of the Dallas County Historical Foundation's original board members. Recorded June 12, 1997.
From 1962 to 1964, Colston worked at the circulation desk at The Dallas Morning News. She frequently saw Jack Ruby at the newspaper, including on the day of the Kennedy assassination. Recorded March 16, 2009.
J R Compton
Editor of the student magazine at the University of Dallas at the time of the assassination, Compton went on to serve in the Vietnam War and become a vocal anti-war critic. After working as a staff photographer at the Dallas Times Herald in the early 1970s, he was publisher of the left-wing underground newspapers Dallas NOTES and HOOKA. Recorded March 17, 2006.
A 48-year employee of the John Sexton Food Company, Conine worked in their warehouse at 411 Elm Street - later known as the Texas School Book Depository - for nine years. He shared his knowledge about the building's history and layout. Recorded January 15, 2002, and August 14, 2013.
The widow of former Texas Gov. John Connally, Nellie Connally was in the presidential limousine at the time of the assassination and spoke the last words to President Kennedy. Connally's memories were recorded during a public speaking appearance in Dallas. Recorded December 6, 1996.
A sports writer for the Boston Herald, Connelly is the author of The President's Team: The 1963 Army-Navy Game and the Assassination of JFK (2009). Recorded November 11, 2011.
A photo technician specialist in Chicago, Cook processed film for Life magazine the weekend of the assassination and was invited to an early screening of the Zapruder film. In 2003, Cook was part of a team that examined the Mary Moorman photo for the Discovery Channel. Recorded September 4, 2003.
An employee of the Federal Aviation Administration, Cook was stationed at Dallas Love Field when the presidential party arrived. He later became an aviation historian. Recorded August 24, 1999.
As a patrolman with the Dallas County Sheriff's Department, Cook escorted Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson during their visit to Dallas in November 1960. Years later, as a criminal investigator, he was assigned escort and courtroom guard duty for Jack Ruby during his 1964 trial. Recorded June 16, 2008.
An associate director with CBS Television in New York in 1963, Cook was involved in covering the events of the assassination. Recorded January 31, 1992.
George and Sarah Cooper
Students at Pepperdine University in California in 1963, the Coopers met on a university-sponsored trip to Germany and were there when the Kennedy assassination took place. Recorded March 11, 2011.
The Rev. Bob Cooper
Beginning in 1965, Cooper was associate chaplain at the Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist University. He was heavily involved in the Dallas peace movement and participated in a number of protests, including a 17-mile march from Fort Worth to Dallas that culminated with a rally near Dealey Plaza. Recorded October 29, 2007.
The head of Dallas Market Hall, which included the Trade Mart, Cooper was one of the Dallas County Historical Foundation's original board members. Recorded March 30, 1994.
Cornwell was a prosecutor with the U.S. Department of Justice when he was selected to serve as the Deputy Chief Counsel for the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1977. He headed up the HSCA's Kennedy assassination investigation and personally interviewed a number of individuals. Cornwell later wrote the book Real Answers (1998). Recorded March 28, 2012.
Costas's late father, Greek immigrant Anthony Costas, owned or managed several private clubs in Dallas beginning in the 1940s. Nickolas Costas purchased the historic Cipango Club in Dallas in the 1970s. Recorded November 1, 2012.
Dr. Malcom Couch
A part-time news photographer for Dallas ABC affiliate WFAA-TV/Channel 8, Couch covered the president's arrival at Dallas Love Field and was riding in the motorcade when he heard three shots fired and saw a rifle barrel in the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository building. Recorded circa 1989, November 21, 2000, and April 2, 2007.
J. Walter Coughlin
A U.S. Secret Service agent from 1961 to 1977, Coughlin served on the details of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and Vice President Hubert Humphrey. He was part of the advance team for San Antonio on President Kennedy's trip to Texas. In 1973, Coughlin became the agent-in-charge of the Dallas field office. Recorded February 18, 2011.
Having celebrated his seventh birthday one week earlier, Coulson was home sick from school on November 22, 1963. The assassination remains one of his earliest and most powerful childhood memories. Recorded January 29, 2010.
Robert B. Counts
A Dallas police patrolman, Counts escorted officials to the Dallas Trade Mart on the morning of November 22, 1963. Following the assassination, he was assigned guard duty at the Texas School Book Depository and Dallas police headquarters. Recorded February 20, 2012.
Cox was Officer of the Day for the 35th Engineer Battalion at Fort Polk, Louisiana, on November 22, 1963. He was sent by his commanding officer to retrieve black-bordered letters about the assassination to be read to all troops. Recorded March 4, 2014.
A Catholic schoolgirl in Dallas, Coyne was a fervent supporter of President Kennedy. After her class missed seeing the motorcade, Coyne responded to the assassination by compiling a scrapbook. Recorded May 3, 2013.
Assistant city editor at the Fort Worth Star-Telegram in 1963, Craig was in the office on Sunday and helped coordinate coverage when Lee Harvey Oswald was shot. In the years since, Craig has been actively involved with the Fort Worth Stockyards National Historic District. Recorded March 10, 2004.
A Dallas police officer from 1954 to 1978, Craighead was assigned to guard the head table for the presidential luncheon at the Dallas Trade Mart on November 22, 1963. Previously, Craighead had worked with Officer J.D. Tippit. Recorded July 7, 2010.
Since the 1970s, Crain has worked with a variety of institutions including the Texas Historical Commission and the Texas State Historical Association. As longtime chairman of the Dallas Historical Society, he served on the founding board of the Dallas County Historical Foundation and was involved in the development of The Sixth Floor exhibition. Recorded June 26, 2013.
Cravotta's family operated a first-floor showroom at the Dallas Trade Mart in 1963. As a result, five-year-old Charles was allowed to stand near the head table to await the president's arrival at the luncheon. Recorded January 27, 2014.
Dr. John Crawford
A longtime research scientist and particle physicist, Crawford was studying in Great Britain in 1963. He began to research the Kennedy assassination, specifically the Zapruder film and the jet effect theory, in 2008 and conducted a series of tests in 2013. Recorded March 3, 2014.
George and Jeannette Crawford
The Crawfords were active in the civil rights and peace movements of the 1960s. They both recall Dallas as a city of hatred and anger at the time of the Kennedy assassination because of vocal right-wing extremism. Recorded June 12, 2009.
Dr. Peadar Cremin
The president of Mary Immaculate College at the University of Limerick, Cremin was fourteen years old when he saw President Kennedy during his June 1963 visit to Ireland. Recorded March 12, 2009.
John A. Crichton
An oil and gas company executive and longtime chairman of the board of Arabian American Development Co., Crichton worked for Dallas Civil Defense in 1963 and obtained a translator for Marina Oswald after her husband's arrest. Crichton was also a friend of George de Mohrenschildt, an acquaintance of Lee Harvey Oswald. Recorded July 6, 2001.
The longtime archivist at Temple Emanu-El in Dallas, Cristol is the author of A Light in the Prairie: Temple Emanu-El of Dallas, 1872-1997 (1998). She saw the Kennedy motorcade on Turtle Creek Boulevard. Recorded November 13, 2013.
A Fort Worth native, Croft was living in west Texas in 1963. He attended one of the few high school football games played in the state on the evening of the assassination. Recorded September 8, 2010.
A jail clerk at the Dallas Police Department at the time of the assassination, Cron started the first Crime Scene Search Unit at the Dallas County Sheriff's Department in 1970 and has since become a veteran crime scene investigator and law enforcement consultant. Recorded May 10 and May 16, 2007.
A legendary broadcast journalist, Cronkite was managing editor and anchorman of the CBS Evening News during the Kennedy years. On November 22, 1963, he reported the news of the president's death on live television. This interview was recorded in conjunction with the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Recorded April 14, 2004.
A U.S. Marine from 1961 to 1964, Crouse was part of the flight crew for the Marine helicopters used by Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. Recorded November 9, 2011.
Twelve years old in 1963, Crow saw President and Mrs. Kennedy upon their arrival at Dallas Love Field. A longtime collector of Kennedy memorabilia, Crow was deeply impacted by the assassination. Recorded February 15, 2012.
A fifty-year veteran of the Dallas/Forth Worth television market, Crow was the studio supervisor at independent station KTVT-TV in 1963. He operated the camera during President Kennedy's Fort Worth breakfast speech, at Parkland Hospital, and during the funeral services for Officer J.D. Tippit. On Sunday, Crow was prepared to shoot video of a Fort Worth memorial service when Lee Harvey Oswald was shot in Dallas. Recorded October 14, 2008.
A longtime community leader, and director of Dallas County Health and Human Services for more than two decades, Culbreath became active in the civil rights movement while attending the University of Texas in Austin. She participated in protests and sit-ins, including a filmed altercation that aired on local television. Recorded April 26, 2011.
Longtime editorial columnist in the print and electronic media, Cullum is part of a prominent local family and has been active in community affairs over the years. Recorded August 24, 2000, and November 10, 2011.
A high school sophomore in 1963, Cunningham saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. In the aftermath of the assassination, she assisted at the Cinderella Flower Shop in Oak Cliff, creating a large number of memorial floral arrangements and transporting them to Dealey Plaza. Recorded July 11, 2008.
Col. Walt Cunningham
America's second civilian astronaut, Cunningham in 1968 was the lunar module pilot for Apollo 7, the first manned mission in the Apollo program. He joined NASA in October 1963, less than one month before the Kennedy assassination. Recorded October 4, 2007, and May 27, 2011.