Oral History

All Oral Histories

Bettye Baccus

An enthusiastic Kennedy supporter, Baccus shook hands with the Kennedys and Lady Bird Johnson at Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth on November 21, 1963. She saw the president a second time outside the Hotel Texas the following morning. Recorded June 23, 2014.

Ms. Baccus passed away on April 12, 2017.

Laura Bachman

Bachman was a junior in high school in Arlington, Texas, in 1963. Her mother attended the Dallas Trade Mart luncheon on the day of the assassination. Recorded September 24, 2018.

Mary Badham

A ten-year-old native of Alabama, Badham portrayed “Scout” Finch in the Academy Award-winning film To Kill a Mockingbird (1962). She continues to lecture around the world on the film’s messages of tolerance and compassion. Recorded November 12, 2014.

Joe Bagley

Bagley was an elementary school student in Colorado in 1963. His late grandmother, Georgia Ella Beale Smith, observed the motorcade from the corner of Main and Houston Streets and heard shots fired in Dealey Plaza. Recorded April 24, 2013.

The Rev. Wilfred Bailey

As minister of Casa View Methodist Church in the 1960s, Bailey was an active leader in community affairs and civil rights. He attended the Dallas Trade Mart luncheon on November 22, 1963. Recorded October 15, 1999.

The Rev. Bailey passed away on July 7, 2006.

Ben and Charlotte Bairrington

Ben Bairrington was a seventh grader in Mesquite, Texas, in 1963. His father took a home movie of President and Mrs. Kennedy at Dallas Love Field. His future wife, Charlotte Sebesta Bairrington, was a student in Fort Worth at the time. Her late mother attended the Chamber of Commerce breakfast at the Hotel Texas. Recorded May 25, 2018.

J.I. “Jim” Baker

A journalist, editor, and novelist, Baker contributed an article on conspiracy theories to the 2013 publication, LIFE: The Day Kennedy Died. He participated in a Museum panel discussion on the creation of that publication. Recorded October 26, 2013.

Russ Baker

An award-winning investigative journalist, Baker wrote the book Family of Secrets(2008), which includes new information on the Kennedy assassination. He continues to research and speak on the subject. Recorded November 12, 2012.

Barbara Baker

An employee of Atlantic Refining Company in Dallas in 1963, Baker saw the Kennedy motorcade at the corner of Mockingbird Lane and Lemmon Avenue. At the time, her family enjoyed a close friendship with Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry.  Recorded March 18, 2016.

Dr. H. Charles Baker

Baker was a professor of electrical engineering at Southern Methodist University (SMU) in Dallas from 1956 to 2014. Although not a Kennedy supporter, he had an emotional reaction to the assassination.  Recorded March 18, 2016.

Dr. Baker passed away on August 13, 2020.

Wanda Baker

A housewife in Denver, Colorado, Baker was driving her infant to the doctor when she learned of the assassination. Recorded March 21, 2019.

Katherine Baker

A Kennedy supporter in Dallas, Baker was teaching a painting class at her home when the assassination took place. Recorded July 19, 2019.

Jorge Baldor

A native of Havana, Cuba, Baldor and his family moved to the United States in the early 1960s. He has since become a successful entrepreneur and founder of the Latino Center for Leadership Development in Dallas. Recorded October 7, 2016.

Betty Sue Ball

At home in Richardson, Texas, with her one-year-old child, Ball recalled feeling very scared during the weekend of the assassination. Recorded May 14, 2018.

Mark Balma

A Minnesota artist who studied in Florence, Italy, Balma has done portrait sittings with several U.S. presidents and British prime ministers. His 2004 painting Pietà, depicting President and Mrs. Kennedy at Parkland Memorial Hospital after the assassination, generated some controversy. Recorded May 31, 2016.

Jimmy Bankston

Bankston is the son of the late Dallas business leader W.O. Bankston, who attended the Dallas Trade Mart luncheon. W.O. Bankston was close friends with Dallas County Sheriff Bill Decker, and Jimmy Bankston has maintained a collection of Decker papers and memorabilia. Recorded January 24, 2014.

Betty Bankston

In 1963, Bankston was a secretary at the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company in Dallas. She remembers some coworkers making disparaging remarks about President Kennedy following the assassination. She later helped retrieve telephone records related to Jack Ruby for investigators. Recorded June 19, 2015.

Joseph Barabe

As the Director of Scientific Imaging at McCrone Associates in the 1990s, Barabe photographed every frame of the original Abraham Zapruder film at the National Archives for use in the MPI Home Video documentary, Image of an Assassination(1998). Recorded May 21, 2014.

Mary Barger

A Texas native, Barger was living in California at the time of the assassination. Recorded May 14, 2018.

Eddie Barker

In 1963, Barker was news director for Dallas CBS affiliate KRLD-TV/Channel 4. Reporting from the Dallas Trade Mart, Barker was the first to announce the death of President Kennedy on air. He was heavily involved in local coverage of the assassination and interviewed many key participants over the years. Recorded April 14, 1993, November 22, 1998, October 23, 2003, June 8, 2006, and January 24, 2007.

Mr. Barker passed away on July 23, 2012.

Malcolm E. Barker

A native of Great Britain, Barker was living in California at the time of the assassination. Six months later, he visited Dallas as part of a two-month cross-country tour, during which he witnessed and extensively photographed the FBI and Secret Service reenactment of the shooting on May 24, 1964. In 2008, Barker donated his photographs to The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza. Recorded August 8, 2008.

Laurel Barkley

A native of Kansas, Barkley shared a birthday with John F. Kennedy on May 29th. An ardent supporter, she wrote him several letters during the 1960 presidential campaign and received a personal response. Recorded July 10, 2013.

Antony Anson Barnes

Barnes and his mother left the United States in 1952 after she was exposed by the FBI as a Communist sympathizer in the 1930s. Barnes returned in 1961 and enrolled in the University of Texas at Austin. He was attending a Russian language class at the time of the assassination. Recorded January 9, 2008.

Archie Barnes

A Dallas County deputy sheriff for twenty-six years, Barnes spent three months guarding Jack Ruby in his jail cell in 1965. He and Ruby talked and played board games, and Ruby drew pictures for Barnes’ children. Recorded September 29, 2006.

Mr. Barnes passed away on January 20, 2010.

Mary Barnes

Barnes is the widow of the late W.E. “Pete” Barnes, an investigator with the Dallas Police Crime Scene Search Unit who gathered evidence and took photographs at the Texas School Book Depository and Tippit shooting scene. Recorded June 25, 2013.

W.E. “Gene” Barnett

Working crowd control at the corner of Elm and Houston Streets, Barnett was the closest Dallas police officer to the Texas School Book Depository entrance at the time of the assassination. Prior to 1963, Barnett knew Jack Ruby and once arrested him for fighting. Recorded January 18 and November 20, 2013.

Charles Barnette

A car enthusiast and JFK memorabilia collector, Barnette refurbished a 1962 Lincoln convertible to resemble the Kennedy limousine, complete with flag stands and identical license plates. It was featured in a 2003 Discovery Channel special. Recorded November 4, 2003.

Mr. Barnette passed away on June 13, 2011.

Mel Barney

A longtime engineer with Texas Instruments, Barney worked with the CIA on a number of high-level security projects during the Cold War. An acquaintance of Jack Ruby, he recalls that Ruby participated in two top-secret flights in 1961. Barney is the author of Four Wars (2011) and Socialism vs. Capitalism (2013). Recorded January 8, 2014.

Bud Barnum

Barnum was serving in the U.S. Coast Guard in 1963 and was assigned to the Honor Guard at the time of the assassination. He was part of the security detail for President Kennedy’s casket upon its arrival in Washington, D.C. During the funeral, he served as a pallbearer. Recorded April 24, 2007.

Jason Baron

Baron was a third grader in Massachusetts in 1963. Decades later, as director of litigation at the National Archives from 2000 to 2013, he worked with the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection. Recorded February 7, 2014.

Benny Bob Barrett

A Dallas County deputy sheriff from 1966 to 1977, Barrett was often assigned guard duty inside Jack Ruby’s cell at the Dallas County Jail and later in his room at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Over a period of approximately seven months, Barrett had numerous personal conversations and interactions with Ruby about a variety of topics, including the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. Recorded September 22, 2009.

Mr. Barrett passed away on July 28, 2015.

Robert Barrett

A Dallas FBI agent in 1963, Barrett was at the Texas School Book Depository, the scene of the J.D. Tippit shooting and the Texas Theatre following the Kennedy assassination. He later followed up investigative leads and took detailed measurements in Dealey Plaza for the FBI’s scale model. Recorded February 22, 2011.

Mr. Barrett passed away on August 23, 2017.

Robbins Barstow

An amateur filmmaker for over 70 years, Barstow shot a color home movie of his family’s 1956 California vacation that was added to the National Film Registry by the Librarian of Congress in 2008. Barstow was an active Democrat during the 1960 presidential election and saw Senator Kennedy at a Connecticut rally. Recorded January 25, 2010.

Mr. Barstow passed away on November 7, 2010.

Patsy Barton

The sister of the late Texas State Senator Mike McKool (1969-72) shares memories of his life and career, including his early efforts to save the Texas School Book Depository from demolition. Barton was driving to a hair appointment when she learned of the assassination. Recorded July 17, 2013.

Ms. Barton passed away on August 28, 2020.

Betty Barton

As a member of the Kilgore College Rangerettes drill team, Barton marched in the 1960 campaign parades in Dallas for both John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon. She was attending the University of Texas at Austin at the time of the assassination. Recorded October 5, 2016.

Jerry Bartos

A former Dallas city councilman (1987-1993), Bartos saw the Kennedy motorcade on Lemmon Avenue on November 22, 1963. In 1960, four days before the presidential election, he witnessed Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson accosted by right-wing demonstrators in front of the Adolphus Hotel in Dallas. Recorded March 8, 2004.

Mr. Bartos passed away on November 28, 2008.

Janice Norman Bassett

Bassett was a waitress at Jack Ruby’s Carousel Club in 1962 and 1963. Following the assassination, her family cared for one of Ruby’s dogs. Bassett, who was interviewed by the FBI, visited Ruby in jail in 1966. Recorded January 16, 2015.

Marshall Bateman

A longtime Dallas businessman, Bateman drove to the Texas School Book Depository out of curiosity within ninety minutes of the assassination. There he lingered, listening to a Dallas police radio. Recorded November 17, 2016.

Mr. Bateman passed away on October 17, 2018.

Lucy Bateman

A Dallas housewife in 1963, Bateman was carrying for two small children on the day of the assassination. Recorded November 17, 2016.

Betty Ann Beachy

Beachy worked in the public relations department of the Trammell Crow Company in 1963 and assisted with preparations for the presidential luncheon at the Dallas Trade Mart. Recorded September 17, 2013.

Ms. Beachy passed away on April 1, 2019.

Calvin S. Beauregard

Longtime transportation manager for the Ford Motor Company’s office of public affairs, Beauregard worked with the U.S. Secret Service on the construction and maintenance of presidential limousines. Recorded October 15, 2005.

Mr. Beauregard passed away on April 14, 2013.

Dr. William R. Beavers

A psychiatrist at Woodlawn Hospital in Dallas, Beavers was at Parkland Memorial Hospital when the assassination took place. Later, following the Jack Ruby trial, Beavers was hired by the Ruby family to conduct a psychiatric evaluation of Ruby. Beavers spent eleven hours with Ruby and was present for his polygraph test. Recorded May 8, 2013.

Dr. Beavers passed away on October 24, 2019.

C. T. Beckham

A real estate developer who moved to Dallas in the summer of 1963, Beckham and his daughters saw the presidential motorcade on both Lemmon Avenue and Stemmons Freeway. Beckham can be seen in a widely distributed Associated Press photograph taken shortly after the shooting. Recorded February 4, 2010.

Leslie Beilharz

A Dallas police motorcycle officer in 1963, Beilharz was at the Dallas Trade Mart and Parkland Memorial Hospital on the day of the assassination. Some researchers believe that his radio microphone was stuck that day, resulting in controversial acoustics evidence later investigated by the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Recorded January 9, 2014.

Samia Bekheet

A fifteen-year-old native of Egypt in 1963, Bekheet had no awareness of John F. Kennedy or the assassination until she immigrated to the United States in 1973. Recorded March 21, 2019.

Mavis Belisle

A sophomore at the University of Texas at Austin in 1963, Belisle contributed to the university newspaper and was locally involved in the Civil Rights Movement. From 1966 to 1969, she served in the Peace Corps in Micronesia in the western Pacific. Recorded September 13, 2010.

Alvie & Patricia Bell

Bell and his wife Patricia, a native of Great Britain, were Kennedy supporters living in Dallas in 1963. Alvie Bell was being treated for pneumonia at a local hospital at the time of the assassination. Recorded October 7, 2014.

Mr. Bell passed away on May 2, 2019.

Andrew Bell

A broadcaster at daytime radio station KSKY in Dallas, Bell was well acquainted with Jack Ruby, who would read advertisements for his clubs on the air. In the 1990s, Bell briefly owned the same radio station. Recorded November 7, 1997.

Mr. Bell passed away in July 1999.

Mark Bell

Bell was an eyewitness to the assassination. His memories were briefly recorded as part of a group interview with Dealey Plaza eyewitnesses. Recorded November 22, 1996.

Mr. Bell passed away on March 26, 1998.

Ruth Ann Bellamy

Although not a supporter, Bellamy witnessed Senator Kennedy’s 1960 campaign parade in downtown Dallas. At the time, her brother was a member of the John Birch Society. Recorded November 3, 2017.

Jim Bendat

As a twelve-year-old, Bendat met Senator John F. Kennedy at the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles. This encounter inspired an interest in politics, and decades later, as a historian of presidential inaugurations, he wrote the book Democracy’s Big Day(2012). Recorded September 12, 2014.

Jane Bender

As a New York high school student, Bender saw John F. Kennedy twice during the 1960 presidential campaign. She was a freshman at Vassar College in 1963. Recorded February 17, 2014.

Richard Benedetto

As a founding staff member of USA Today, Benedetto covered the White House as a political reporter from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush. He was attending Syracuse University in New York at the time of the assassination. Recorded October 26, 2018.

Mary Sue Bennett

A twenty-two-year employee with Allyn and Bacon publishing company, Bennett was working on the third floor of the Texas School Book Depository in 1963. Standing on Elm Street, she witnessed the assassination. Recorded July 29, 2010.

Ms. Bennett passed away on May 6, 2020.

Susan Bennett

Director of international exhibits at the Newseum and co-editor of the 2003 book President Kennedy Has Been Shot, Bennett moderated a live panel discussion with retired journalists Eddie Barker, Bob Jackson, Darwin Payne and Bert Shipp. Recorded October 23, 2003.

Albert Bennett

Bennett was deeply impacted by President Kennedy’s death. He held a longtime grudge against his company supervisor after being told to continue working as scheduled following news of the assassination. Recorded February 26, 2019.

Paul Bentley

Chief polygraph examiner with the Dallas Police Department in 1963, Bentley participated in the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald at the Texas Theatre. Recorded February 16, 1994, April 18 and September 14, 2007, and January 22 and May 16, 2008.

Mr. Bentley passed away on July 21, 2008.

The Rev. Don Benton

The Rev. Benton was minister of Spring Valley Methodist Church in Dallas in 1963. He preached a sermon about the assassination on Sunday, November 24, 1963. Recorded June 19, 2015.

The Rev. Benton passed away on October 23, 2019.

Donna Benton

The daughter of longtime Methodist minister Don Benton, Benton was a second grade student at the Lamplighter School in Dallas at the time of the assassination. Recorded June 19, 2015.

Sam Berger

An employee of the Peacock Jewelry Company in Dallas, Berger sold Abraham Zapruder the Bell & Howell home movie camera used to film the Kennedy assassination. Berger observed and photographed the motorcade himself on Main Street. Recorded October 10, 2011.

Mr. Berger passed away on November 13, 2016.

Judy Bergstrom

A senior at Thomas Jefferson High School in Dallas, Bergstrom skipped school on November 22, 1963, and saw the Kennedys arrive at Dallas Love Field. Recorded October 15, 2014.

Harold B. Berman

A Dallas attorney for more than sixty years, Berman worked with both Abraham Zapruder and Jack Ruby’s brother, Sam. Berman saw the Kennedy motorcade from his office window and later testified for the defense at the change-of-venue hearing that preceded the Jack Ruby trial in 1964. Recorded June 17, 2015.

Mr. Berman passed away on March 25, 2019.

Joyce Ruby Berman

Daughter of the late Earl Ruby, and niece of Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby, Berman recalls the impact that her uncle’s murder of Lee Harvey Oswald had on her family, including death threats, FBI interviews and police protection. Recorded September 14, 2017.

Joyce Bernard

A Dallas housewife in 1963, Bernard was at a doctor’s office with her infant daughter at the time of the assassination. Recorded January 13, 2015, and January 27, 2016.

Lou Berney

An award-winning crime novelist, Berney is the author of November Road (2018). Set against the backdrop of the Kennedy assassination, this novel was inspired by Berney’s childhood visits to Dealey Plaza. Recorded October 30, 2019.

Michael R. Beschloss

A recognized presidential historian and author of several books, including The Crisis Years: Kennedy and Khrushchev (1991) and Presidential Courage (2007), Beschloss was seven years old at the time of the Kennedy assassination. Recorded June 12, 2007.

Steven Beschloss

A journalist and author, Beschloss was five years old at the time of the assassination. He later wrote the book, The Gunman and His Mother: Lee Harvey Oswald, Marguerite Oswald and the Making of an Assassin (2013). Recorded April 23, 2018.

Fred Bieberdorf

A first aid technician working at Dallas police headquarters on November 24, 1963, Bieberdorf was the first individual to examine Lee Harvey Oswald after he was shot. After riding in an ambulance with Oswald to Parkland Memorial Hospital, Bieberdorf returned to police headquarters and conducted an examination of Jack Ruby. Recorded March 9, 2007.

Mr. Bieberdorf passed away on April 19, 2009.

Kent Biffle

A reporter for The Dallas Morning News, Biffle was one of the only journalists inside the Texas School Book Depository while investigators gathered evidence on the sixth floor of the building. He later covered Jim Garrison’s New Orleans investigation for Newsweek magazine. In 1959, as a reporter for the Fort Worth Press, he wrote stories about Lee Harvey Oswald’s defection and tried to reach Oswald by telephone in Moscow. Recorded June 28, 1993.

Mr. Biffle passed away on August 23, 2015.

Marilyn Biggs

An avid viewer of the long-running soap opera, As The World Turns, Biggs vividly remembers news of the president’s shooting interrupting the November 22nd broadcast. The assassination had a profound impact on her life. Recorded September 24, 2018.

Robert Bigham

An employee of the First National Bank in Dallas, Bigham saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. He and a coworker then walked to Dealey Plaza in the aftermath of the assassination. Recorded April 25, 2018.

William Billard

A Kennedy campaign volunteer in 1960, Billard was an emergency room orderly at Parkland Memorial Hospital at the time of the assassination. He worked the 11PM to 7AM shift on the weekend of November 22, 1963. Recorded January 9, 2019.

Delbrook Binns

A freelance photographer in Massachusetts, Binns photographed John F. Kennedy at various times between 1953 and 1960. At the time of the assassination, he was serving jury duty in Boston. Recorded July 5, 2007.

James Birch

A Dallas ninth grader, Birch briefly shook hands with President Kennedy when the motorcade stopped on Lemmon Avenue. His late sister, Patricia Ann Kohs, performed under the stage name “Penny Dollar” at Jack Ruby’s Carousel Club. Recorded May 1, 2018.

Marca Lee Bircher

A conservative Dallas housewife, Bircher stayed indoors with a neighbor after the assassination, fearing that the president’s death was the start of a foreign invasion. Recorded November 9, 2010.

Diane Birdwell

A longtime Dallas educator, Birdwell celebrated her third birthday three days before the Kennedy assassination. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, she conducted an oral history project with firefighters and police officials in New York City. Birdwell was interviewed with her mother, Jeanette Green. Recorded August 11, 2011.

Jo Ann Birkmeyer

During the Kennedy years, Birkmeyer and her family lived on Little Rock Air Force Base in Arkansas where her husband worked as a radar technician. Following the assassination, the base was put on high alert. Recorded April 20, 2010.

Judge Brandon Birmingham

A presiding Criminal District Judge in Dallas County and a former Dallas County prosecutor, Birmingham has extensively researched Jack Ruby’s 1964 trial and subsequent appeal. He facilitated the loan of Jack Ruby materials from the Dallas County District Attorney’s Office to The Sixth Floor Museum in 2017. Recorded March 15 and September 27, 2017.

Bernard Birnbaum

A longtime producer, editor and director with CBS News in New York, Birnbaum was in the studio with Walter Cronkite when Cronkite announced President Kennedy’s death on national television. Birnbaum flew to Dallas on Saturday to cover the breaking news with Dan Rather and went on to work extensively in the development and production of every major CBS program related to the Kennedy assassination from 1964 to 2003. Recorded March 8, 2007.

Mr. Birnbaum passed away on November 26, 2009.

Ron Bivins

A Dallas native born in 1963, Bivins became nationally active with the NAACP after meeting prominent local activist Juanita Craft. He was named “Mr. NAACP” at the 1981 national convention in Denver, Colorado. Recorded February 6, 2020.

Dr. Earl Black

A political science professor at Rice University, Earl Black, with brother Merle Black, is the author of several books about southern politics, including The Vital South: How Presidents are Elected (1992) and The Rise of Southern Republicans (2002). Recorded February 21, 2012.

Dr. Merle Black

A political science professor at Emory University, Merle Black, with brother Earl Black, is the author of several books about southern politics, including The Vital South: How Presidents are Elected (1992) and The Rise of Southern Republicans (2002). Recorded February 21, 2012.

Randy Black

A junior at Highland Park High School, Black was an intern at the Dallas Times Heraldin 1963. He shook hands with President Kennedy at Dallas Love Field. Black later joined the photography staff at the Dallas Times Herald in 1972. Recorded January 14, 2015.

Mr. Black passed away on March 24, 2019.

Gerald Blaine

A U.S. Secret Service agent during the Kennedy years, Blaine was in Austin, Texas, at the time of the assassination. He later authored, with journalist Lisa McCubbin, the book The Kennedy Detail (2010).  Recorded November 18, November 19, and November 20, 2010.

Amanda Blake

Blake is currently head of Family, Access and School Experiences at the Dallas Museum of Art. Her presentation on art, healing and disabilities was recorded as part of a Museum teacher workshop. Recorded July 17, 2014.

G. Robert Blakey

A longtime law professor at Notre Dame and Cornell Law School, Blakey was working for the Justice Department in 1963. He later served as Chief Counsel and Staff Director of the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations from 1977 to 1979. Co-author of The Plot to Kill President Kennedy (1981), Blakey has continued to research and speak on the assassination. Recorded October 29, December 6 and 10, 2018.

Sharon Blalock

Blalock was attending St. Cloud State University in Minnesota at the time of the assassination. Her parents did not support John F. Kennedy in 1960 due to his Catholicism. Recorded March 21, 2019.

Joanne Bland

As a young child in Selma, Alabama, Bland participated in the famous civil rights march on “Bloody Sunday,” March 7, 1965. Later that month, she joined Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on his march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. Her memories were recorded with those of other civil rights activists. Recorded February 28, 2006.

Camille Blankenship

Living in Arizona in 1963, Blankenship moved to Dallas the following year.  She celebrated her 20th birthday one week prior to the assassination. Recorded January 26, 2010.

Ann Blankinship

A sophomore at Highland Park High School in 1963, Blankinship observed the Kennedy motorcade with friends on Main Street. Recorded June 26, 2009, and May 30, 2019.

Sarah Blaser

A senior at North Dallas High School in 1963, Blaser was co-editor of the school yearbook, which featured a memorial tribute to President Kennedy the following year. Recorded February 27, 2015.

Rose Blatch

Blatch was secretary of the Time-Life bureau in Dallas (1961-62) and Houston (1963-72). During their coverage of the Kennedy assassination and Jack Ruby trial, Blatch managed temporary Time-Life offices out of Dallas hotel suites. Recorded January 9, 2012, and February 26, 2013.

Isadore “Izzy” Bleckman

A photographer for Fox Movietone News in 1963, Bleckman filmed the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. Earlier that weekend, he filmed on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository, at the Texas Theatre, and at other assassination-related sites in the Dallas area. In 1964, he covered the Jack Ruby trial. Recorded August 15, 2009.

Karen Blessen

A Pulitzer Prize-winning writer and artist, Blessen in 2013 organized the Dallas LOVE project, the largest public art project in Dallas history, to present 10,000 pieces as a tribute to the memory and legacy of President Kennedy. Recorded July 17, 2014, February 12 and 14, 2015, and September 21, 2016.

Elizabeth Blessing

One of the first women elected to the Dallas City Council, Blessing served on the council from 1961 to 1965. She attended the luncheon at the Dallas Trade Mart on November 22, 1963. Previously, she attended a council meeting at which Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry indicated that he could not effectively protect President Kennedy during his visit. Recorded January 26, 2007.

Ms. Blessing passed away on June 11, 2013.

Gary Blockley

A resident of California at the time of the assassination, Blockley generously donated a camera lens for the Museum’s “The Photographers and the Evidence” exhibition, which opened in 1996. Recorded June 5, 1997.

Robert H. Bloom

Bloom is the former U.S. chairman and CEO of Publicis Worldwide and the author of The Inside Advantage (2007) and The New Experts (2010). His father, the late Sam Bloom, was a prominent Dallas advertising executive and coordinated PR for the Kennedy visit and later the Jack Ruby trial. Robert Bloom and his father were at the Trade Mart luncheon on November 22, 1963. Recorded March 6, 2012.

Lackland H. Bloom, Jr.

An author and law professor at Southern Methodist University, Bloom participated in a public program at The Sixth Floor Museum on the creation of the Bill of Rights, with a special emphasis on the First Amendment. Recorded February 20, 2017.

Steve Blow

A sixth grade student in Tyler, Texas, in 1963, Blow joined The Dallas Morning News in 1978 and wrote an award-winning column from 1989 to 2015. In addition to writing assassination anniversary stories in 1983 and 1988, he covered the opening of The Sixth Floor exhibit in 1989. Recorded August 25, 2015.

Lisa Blumberg

A longtime disability rights activist and author, Blumberg was eleven years old in 1963. A letter she wrote to Jackie Kennedy shortly after the assassination was included in Dr. Ellen Fitzpatrick’s Letters to Jackie: Condolences from a Grieving Nation (2010). Recorded September 28, 2010.

Henry Bodden

An employee of the John Sexton Company in 1963, Bodden saw the Kennedy motorcade on Stemmons Freeway immediately after the assassination. Recorded November 11, 2009.

Dr. Donald Boggs

An Emmy Award-winning documentarian, broadcaster and retired professor of communications at Anderson University in Indiana, Boggs was ten years old in 1963. He produced and directed the 2008 documentary, A Ripple of Hope, an exploration of Sen. Robert Kennedy’s speech in Indianapolis on the evening of the Martin Luther King Jr. assassination. Recorded June 21 and August 23, 2018.

Abraham Bolden

The first African American U.S. Secret Service agent assigned to the White House Detail, Bolden was personally selected by President Kennedy in 1961. After leaving the Secret Service amid controversy in 1964, Bolden testified before the House Select Committee on Assassinations and later wrote the book, The Echo From Dealey Plaza (2008). Recorded January 8, 2016.

Christopher Boldt

Boldt is the nephew of the late historian and researcher Mary Ferrell. Beginning the weekend of the assassination, Ferrell started collecting material which grew into a notable archive of books, newspapers, declassified documents, and other materials. Recorded June 30, 2017.

Walton Bondies

An Assistant Dallas District Attorney in 1963, Bondies observed the Kennedy motorcade near the corner of Main and Houston Streets. Although not assigned to work on the case against Jack Ruby, Bondies observed part of the Ruby trial in 1964. Recorded June 21, 2013.

Eugene Boone

A Dallas County deputy sheriff in 1963, Boone saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street and searched the Dealey Plaza rail yards following the assassination. He then discovered the rifle on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Prior to joining the sheriff’s department, he worked at the Dallas Times Herald and knew Jack Ruby. Recorded November 25, 2003, November 20, 2006, November 18, 2008, November 20, 2013, and March 24 and November 8, 2014.

Mr. Boone passed away on October 28, 2017.

Paul Boone

A state trooper with the Texas Highway Patrol in 1963, Boone was assigned guard duty for Gov. John Connally during his recovery at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Boone was interviewed with his partner, Ralph Allen. Recorded April 14, 2010.

Mr. Boone passed away on December 27, 2013.

Mary M. Booth

A cashier at the Skyliner Ballroom in Fort Worth in 1960, Booth had occasional contact with Jack Ruby. In 1963, she was married to the late Captain Lloyd Booth of the Dallas County Sheriff’s Department, who served as one of Ruby’s jailers. As a result, Mary Booth had the opportunity to visit with Ruby in jail. Recorded July 28, 2005.

Bryant C. Boren, Sr.

Boren filmed the motorcade shortly before the shooting occurred. Later he joined with other amateur photographers to form the Dallas Cinema Associates and played an active role in producing the group’s compilation film, President Kennedy’s Final Hour. Recorded October 17, 2003.

Mr. Boren passed away on December 19, 2008.

Tommy Joy Bosler

A Dallas housewife and mother of four in 1963, Bosler was acquainted with federal judges Sarah T. Hughes and Barefoot Sanders. Later, as PR manager at UT Southwestern Medical School, Bosler worked on the book, Surgery: The First Fifty Years (1993), which includes recollections of the Kennedy assassination. Recorded July 24, 2013.

Warren Bosworth

A police reporter at the Dallas Times Herald in 1963, Bosworth was an eyewitness to the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. Earlier that year he covered the attempted shooting of Major General Edwin Walker in Dallas. Recorded September 24, 1997, and January 31, 2014.

Roy R. Botello

As the first Scholarship Corporation Chairman of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Botello attended the organization’s annual conference at the Rice Hotel in Houston on November 21, 1963. He captured a home movie of President and Mrs. Kennedy at the event, which he later donated to The Sixth Floor Museum. Recorded March 19, 2011.

Mr. Botello passed away on December 4, 2016.

Barbara Bottoms

A housewife in Mesquite, Texas, in 1963, Bottoms was having portraits made of her children on the morning of the Kennedy assassination. Recorded February 26, 2019.

Susan Boucher

As a student nurse in Washington, D.C., Boucher volunteered to serve in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda as President Kennedy’s body lay in state on the weekend of the assassination. Recorded August 6, 1997.

David Bourland

A Dallas high school student in 1963, Bourland saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. After the assassination, he and a classmate viewed the scene at Parkland Memorial Hospital from telescopes at the top of the Southland Life Building. Recorded March 3, 2014.

Richard Bove

A Korean War veteran, Bove worked for the advertising department at WFAA Radio from 1959 to 1970. He saw the Kennedy motorcade and witnessed firsthand much of the WFAA news coverage of the assassination. Recorded August 22, 2013.

Mr. Bove passed away on December 11, 2016.

Judith Bowdich

A native of Massachusetts, Bowdich was married one week after the assassination. Her soon-to-be husband, John Bowdich, was a steward aboard Air Force One and was at Dallas Love Field on November 22, 1963. Recorded August 21, 2018.

Sheriff Jim Bowles

A longtime Dallas County sheriff (1985-2005), Bowles was supervisor of the Dallas Police Department radio division in 1963. Beginning in the 1970s, he researched the controversial acoustics evidence investigated by the House Select Committee. He has been interviewed and consulted with researchers on the acoustics evidence numerous times over the years. Recorded September 14, 1993.

Sheriff Bowles passed away on August 11, 2018.

Elmer L. Boyd

A Dallas police homicide detective, Boyd was heavily involved in the local assassination investigation and served as one of Oswald’s primary handlers on Friday and Saturday. Boyd was at the Dallas Trade Mart, Parkland Memorial Hospital, the Texas School Book Depository and Dallas police headquarters during the course of that weekend. He was also with Oswald during his initial interrogations, police lineups, paraffin tests and the midnight press showing of the suspect. Previously, Boyd worked a security detail for Lyndon Johnson in the last days of the 1960 campaign and for President Kennedy when he briefly visited Dallas in 1962. Recorded February 23, 2007, and March 7, 2015.

Jonathan Braddick

A Dallas native, Braddick served as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Ukraine from 2001 to 2002 and was there during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Recorded March 5 and August 26, 2011.

Lillian Bradshaw

Head of the Dallas Public Library System throughout the 1960s, Bradshaw was a founding board member of the Dallas County Historical Foundation. A longtime community leader, she was instrumental in fundraising for The Sixth Floor exhibit during its development in the 1980s. Recorded May 11, 1998.

Ms. Bradshaw passed away on February 9, 2010.

George W. Bramblett, Jr.

A longtime partner with Haynes and Boone, LLP, Bramblett was a freshman law student at Southern Methodist University in 1964 and attended one day of the Jack Ruby trial, which turned out to be the day of the infamous Dallas County jailbreak. Recorded March 10 and 14, and May 19, 2004.

Mr. Bramblett passed away on November 21, 2016.

Ernest Brandt

An assassination eyewitness who did not come forward until the 1990s, Brandt was standing on the north side of Elm Street and can be seen in the Abraham Zapruder film. Following his first public interview in 1993, Brandt traditionally visited Dealey Plaza to speak with visitors on the annual November anniversary. Recorded May 12, 1994, and July 3, 2008.

Mr. Brandt passed away on December 6, 2017.

Dr. Robert Breen

Thirteen years old in 1963, Breen saw the Kennedys arrive at Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth on November 21, 1963. The following morning Breen shook hands with President Kennedy at the Hotel Texas. Recorded June 28, 2010.

Mike Brennen

The son of Kennedy supporters, Brennen was a third grader at a Catholic school in Columbus, Ohio, at the time of the assassination. Recorded January 17, 2020.

Mary Alice Huron Brereton

Brereton’s fiancé was stationed at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio in 1963. She was preparing for her December wedding when she learned of the assassination. Recorded January 24, 2017.

Johnny Calvin Brewer

The manager of Hardy’s Shoe Store in Oak Cliff on the day of the assassination, Brewer noticed a suspicious individual (who turned out to be Lee Harvey Oswald) and followed him down the street to the Texas Theatre. Brewer pointed Oswald out to Dallas police officers and witnessed his arrest. Recorded November 21, 2005.

Susan Bridge

A nurse’s aide in New Mexico in 1963, Bridge was battling a major dysentery outbreak impacting the local community, including her infant daughter, at the time of the assassination. Recorded September 3, 2009.

Charles A. Briggs

The former executive director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Briggs spent one year working on research for The Sixth Floor project in the Washington, D.C., offices of exhibition designers Bob Staples and Barbara Charles. Recorded February 16, 2009.

Mr. Briggs passed away on November 4, 2015.

Dr. Douglas Brinkley

A noted author, CNN commentator, and professor of history at Rice University, Brinkley served as editor of the book, JFK: A Vision for America (2017). Brinkley has been a featured speaker at The Sixth Floor Museum on three occasions, including at the Kennedy Centennial in May 2017. Recorded March 12, 1999, November 21, 2003, and May 16, 2017.

William Bristow

As technical director of Wadley Blood Bank in Dallas, Bristow personally took blood to Parkland Memorial Hospital after learning of the presidential shooting. He later arranged for blood to be sent to Parkland after Lee Harvey Oswald was shot on November 24, 1963. Recorded May 31, 2012.

Clarence Broadnax

A longtime civil rights activist, Broadnax was the first African-American hairstylist hired at Neiman Marcus and Sanger-Harris department stores in Dallas. A member of the NAACP and the Nation of Islam, he was one of the key organizers of the prominent 1964 protest of the downtown Piccadilly Cafeteria, and he was arrested on several different occasions during the civil rights movement. Recorded August 14, 2006, June 11, 2008, and August 1, 2013.

Bob Brock

The television editor at the Dallas Times Herald for three decades, Brock was well acquainted with both Jack Ruby and Frank Goldstein, a former Ruby associate from Chicago. Brock briefly spoke with Ruby on the day before the Oswald shooting. Recorded February 7, 2000, and September 25, 2015.

Mr. Brock passed away on February 16, 2016.

Howard Brodie

A noted courtroom sketch artist for more than 35 years, Brodie covered every day of the Jack Ruby trial in 1964 for CBS News. Previously, during the 1960 campaign, he sketched both Kennedy and Nixon for Newsweek. Recorded October 13, 2006.

Mr. Brodie passed away on September 24, 2010.

Tom Brokaw

Former anchor and managing editor of NBC Nightly News, Brokaw was a local television reporter at KMTV in Omaha, Nebraska, when the assassination took place. Recorded April 15, 2004.

Frances Bronson

Interviewed with her daughter, Barbara Young, Bronson was an eyewitness to the Kennedy assassination. Her late husband, Charles Bronson, was filming in Dealey Plaza and caught the fatal headshot on film from a distance. Recorded August 14 and November 22, 1996.

Ms. Bronson passed away on February 24, 2010.

Dr. Will Brooker

Brooker is an author and professor of film and cultural studies at Kingston University in London. He is currently at work on a book that explores how modern perceptions of the 1960s are influenced by popular culture. Recorded March 22, 2018.

Michael Brosio

A native of California, Brosio was twelve years old at the time of the assassination and later became involved in social activism. His book, The JFK Memorial and Power in America (2014), explores both the meaning of Philip Johnson’s Dallas memorial and the broader story of Cold War politics and the CIA.  Recorded July 13, 2016.

Carla Brown

A housewife in McAllen, Texas, in 1963, Brown was an avid viewer of the long-running soap opera, As The World Turns. She vividly remembers news of the president’s shooting interrupting the November 22nd broadcast. Recorded June 23, 2014.

Carroll Brown

As a student at Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist University, Brown became one of the earliest civil rights activists in Dallas by organizing a 1960 drugstore sit-in. Brown, one of the few white activists in the city, played a prominent role in local protests from 1960 to 1967. Recorded August 6, 2008.

Mr. Brown passed away on November 8, 2011.

Charles L. Brown

An employee of the Lone Star Gas Company in 1963, Brown photographed the Kennedy motorcade on Harwood Street. His uncle, the late Lynn Brown, was the mayor of Irving, Texas, at the time and flew with Dallas Mayor Earle Cabell to Washington, D.C., for President Kennedy’s funeral on Monday. Recorded March 1, 2007.

Mr. Brown passed away on May 4, 2016.

Gloria Brown

Brown was a student teacher at an all African American school in Marshall, Texas, at the time of the assassination. She moved to Dallas less than one year later. Recorded November 9, 2010.

Phill Brown

A teenager in 1963, Brown saw the presidential motorcade on Houston Street and ran toward the Triple Underpass after shots were fired. He then lingered for hours in the Dealey Plaza area. His father, the late Dallas County deputy sheriff Richard Brown, served as Jack Ruby’s dietician during his incarceration. Brown was interviewed with his friend, Les French. Recorded November 5, 2008.

Mr. Brown passed away on December 28, 2009.

Richard Brown

Brown served as a member of the Navy Ceremonial Guard during President Kennedy’s funeral ceremonies in Washington D.C. Recorded March 28, 1995.

Judge Joe B. Brown, Jr.

A Dallas justice of the peace in 1963, Brown held an inquest into the death of Officer Tippit and issued search warrants for several assassination-related locations. His father, the late Judge Joe B. Brown, presided over the Jack Ruby trial in 1964. Recorded March 2, March 14 and May 19, 2004, and January 24, 2007.

Judge Brown passed away on July 30, 2013.

Jewel Brown

A singer from Houston, Texas, Brown performed at Jack Ruby’s Sovereign Club in 1960. She was touring with legendary jazz musician Louis Armstrong at the time of the assassination. Recorded April 13, 2015.

David Brown

A photographer for close to fifty years, Brown conducted a test of the Oswald backyard photographs for a Mysteries at the Museum special on the Kennedy assassination in 2018. In 1963, he was twelve years old and living in Corpus Christi, Texas. Recorded July 18, 2018.

Randall Brown

Thirteen years old in 1963, Brown was deeply impacted by the assassination. A Kennedy collector and researcher for decades, he wrote a musical composition in memory of President Kennedy that was performed in Oklahoma City in 1984. Recorded February 3, 2017.

Robert Bruton

As operations manager for KXOL radio in Fort Worth in 1963, Bruton covered the president’s visit to the city in 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald’s death at Parkland Memorial Hospital, and Oswald’s funeral the following day. Recorded January 24, 2011.

Mr. Bruton passed away on February 8, 2016.

Archibald Bryant

A history teacher for more than three decades, Bryant grew up in Washington, D.C. As a college student, he visited the U.S. Capitol rotunda with friends during the weekend of the assassination. Recorded July 13, 1999, and November 5, 2015.

Helen Bryson

Bryson observed the Kennedy motorcade from the fourth floor of the Mercantile Bank building on Main Street. Recorded May 14, 2018.

Matthew Brzezinski

A former Moscow correspondent for The Wall Street Journal, Brzezinski is the author of the 2007 book Red Moon Rising: Sputnik and the Hidden Rivalries That Ignited the Space Age, which explores the history of Sputnik’s launch on October 4, 1957. This lecture was recorded in conjunction with the World Affairs Council of Dallas. Recorded October 11, 2007.

Ruth Buckhanan

A lifelong professional quilter, Buckhanan produced numerous handmade John F. Kennedy memorial quilts after the assassination in 1963. Recorded on February 20, 2003.

Ms. Buckhanan passed away on November 2, 2015.

Todd Buckley

A Dallas musician, poet, and active member of the local Buddhist community, Buckley spent two weeks working as a full-time Dealey Plaza extra during the production of Oliver Stone’s JFK (1991). Recorded on October 25, 2017.

Donald K. Buckman

Buckman grew up in Fort Worth and was serving in the U.S. Army at Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas, in 1963. One year later, as a reporter for the Dallas Times Herald, he covered the first assassination anniversary. Recorded on August 6, 2015.

Ann H. Buell

During the 1960 presidential campaign, Buell had frequent contacts with John F. Kennedy as she helped campaign for his election. Recorded February 13, 1995.

Janice Crabtree Bunnell

Bunnell observed the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. The letter she wrote to Jackie Kennedy six months after the assassination was selected for publication in Dr. Ellen Fitzpatrick’s book, Letters to Jackie: Condolences from a Grieving Nation (2010). Recorded March 16, 2010.

Ms. Bunnell passed away on August 13, 2018.

Gayla Burke

A ninth-grader in Richardson, Texas, in 1963, Burke recalled not being allowed to miss school to observe the parade in downtown Dallas. Recorded April 14, 1995.

Phil Burleson

A noted Dallas attorney, Burleson was a key member of Jack Ruby’s defense team during his 1964 trial for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald. Burleson remained part of the counsel until Ruby’s death in 1967. Recorded April 4, 1995.

Mr. Burleson passed away on May 30, 1995.

Phil Burleson, Jr.

Burleson, an attorney in Dallas, is the son of the late Phil Burleson, who served as one of Jack Ruby’s defense attorneys until Ruby’s death in 1967. His recollections of his father were recorded in conjunction with the Center for American and International Law during a Higginbotham Inn of Court panel discussion on the Ruby trial. Recorded May 19, 2004.

Marvin Burlison

An installation supervisor with the Southwestern Bell Telephone Company in 1963, Burlison oversaw temporary communications installations at the Dallas Trade Mart in preparation for the presidential visit. Immediately after the assassination, he assisted in the emergency setup of microwave communications at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Recorded March 25, 2005.

Mr. Burlison passed away on December 6, 2006.

Gary Burnett

An Oak Cliff student in 1963, Burnett saw the Kennedy motorcade. He then went to the Texas Theatre where he witnessed the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald. He was immediately questioned by Dallas police. Recorded October 29, 2015.

Raun Burnham

A longtime singer and songwriter, Burnham was part of a folk music tour in the New York area at the time of the assassination. She later visited Dealey Plaza in 1967. Recorded September 11, 2013.

Mike Burns

A tenth grade student in 1963, Burns was inspired in part by the Kennedy assassination to pursue a career in law enforcement, serving as an Indiana State Trooper for three decades. Recorded January 29, 2016.

Rodger & Carolyn Burson

A longtime architect, Rodger Burson worked on the first phase of the adaptive reuse of the Texas School Book Depository building after it was purchased by Dallas County. His wife, Carolyn Burson, was a member of the Dallas County Heritage Society in the 1970s. Recorded February 13, 2002, and April 18, 2014.

Alex Burton

A reporter for local NBC affiliate WBAP-TV in Fort Worth, Burton covered some of the events of the assassination weekend. Later, he served as a commentator on community affairs. Recorded August 30, 1995.

Mr. Burton passed away on September 13, 2012.

The Rev. Charles Burton

Burton was a Methodist minister in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963. During the Civil Rights Movement, he was a member of the Alabama Conference on Human Relations. Recorded June 28, 2019.

Ronald Buschbom

A student at the U.S. Naval Academy in the early 1960s, Buschbom was a member of the Navy Midshipmen football team. He was with the team at the 1963 Army-Navy game following the assassination and then visited Dealey Plaza with his teammates in January 1964. Recorded November 11, 2011.

Mr. Buschbom passed away on October 12, 2016.

Dorothy M. Bush

Bush taught Lee Harvey Oswald ninth-grade science at Beauregard Junior High School in New Orleans. Recorded September 11, 2003.

Ms. Bush passed away on October 22, 2005.

Eric Bushman

A broadcaster at WBAP Radio in Dallas, Bushman produced an award-winning series of programs to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Kennedy assassination in 2013. Born more than two decades after the tragedy, Bushman has maintained a lifelong interest in the subject and has interviewed many key participants over the years. Recorded August 7 and October 23, 2015.

James Dennis Butler

Butler was a ten-year-old student in Savanah, Georgia, in 1963. He has maintained a lifelong research interest in the Kennedy assassination. Recorded October 22, 2018.

Bo Byers

The Austin bureau chief for the Houston Chronicle, Byers was traveling with the presidential party in Texas and was in the Dallas motorcade aboard the press bus. Recorded July 25, 1995.

Mr. Byers passed away on May 23, 2010.