All Oral Histories
As a five-year-old, Gage saw the Kennedy motorcade on Cedar Springs Road. At the time, her father worked for Delta Airlines at Dallas Love Field. Recorded April 12, 2019.
A fourth grader in Pennsylvania in 1963, Gallagher was inspired in part by the assassination to become a high school history teacher. During his thirty-six years in education, he shared with his students his firsthand memories of the assassination every November. Recorded May 16, 2019.
A U.S. history teacher for close to forty years, Gallagher was a sixth grader in Pennsylvania in 1963. He has maintained a lifelong admiration for John F. Kennedy and shared that appreciation with his students over the years. Recorded July 25, 2019.
A longtime assassination researcher, Gallop was involved in the 1989 opening of the JFK Assassination Information Center in Dallas. His late grandfather, C.E. Nichols, was a longtime bell captain at the Adolphus Hotel and had many personal encounters with Jack Ruby. Recorded January 14, 2014.
Currently the executive director of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gant was a senior medical student at Methodist Hospital in Dallas at the time of the assassination. On that afternoon, he participated in the retrieval of a bullet from the body of Officer J.D. Tippit. He also knew many of the doctors who treated both President Kennedy and Gov. Connally at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Recorded February 6, 2008.
A songwriter and drama teacher in Toronto, Canada, Garbe has had a lifelong interest in the Kennedy assassination. After visiting Dealey Plaza for the first time in 1993, he wrote a series of songs about the tragedy, which was produced with the Cowboy Junkies as a concept album, The Kennedy Suite (2013). Recorded June 24, 2014, and October 16 and 17, 2015.
A native Cuban who fled his homeland when Fidel Castro came to power, Garcia became an active community leader in Dallas. Recorded September 27 and October 29, 2000.
A native of Mexico who grew up in San Antonio, Garcia was a U.S. Army combat medic and served in the Vietnam War. As a professor of history at Brigham Young University, he has written several books on Mexican American politics and history, including Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot (2000). Recorded June 9, 2021.
An author and distinguished professor of Chicano studies and history at the University of California Santa Barbara, Garcia was a sophomore at the University of Texas at El Paso at the time of the assassination. Recorded July 7, 2021.
As a freshman at the University of Virginia in 1964, Gardner became active in the Civil Rights Movement and participated in the final part of the Selma to Montgomery march on March 25, 1965. He was involved in numerous labor, civil rights and anti-Vietnam War protests throughout the South and served as chairman of the Southern Student Organizing Committee from 1967 to 1969. Recorded July 20, 2021.
Gardner’s Waltrip Senior High School marching band performed for President Kennedy during his trips to Houston, Texas, on September 12, 1962, and November 21, 1963. Gardner and his brother, Gary, filmed home movies of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson between 1962 and 1964, which were donated to the Museum in 2012. Recorded February 4, 2013.
A World War II veteran, Garner was serving in the U.S. Air Force in Bermuda at the time of the Kennedy assassination. November 22, 1963, was his fortieth birthday. Recorded February 11, 2015.
A native of Louisiana, Garner observed the Kennedy motorcade near the corner of Mockingbird Lane and Lemmon Avenue. He later witnessed a Ku Klux Klan rally in Dealey Plaza in the 1970s. Recorded August 2, 2019.
Mr. Garner passed away on February 3, 2021.
The Garretts were Methodist missionaries living and working in Malaysia at the time of the assassination. Recorded October 25, 2016.
Mr. Guy Garrett passed away on November 30, 2019.
A Dallas native, whose family settled in the area in the early 1900s, Garrett became a local civil rights activist in 1960. While attending college in Los Angeles, he coordinated transportation for and attended the March on Washington in 1963. Garrett, who was arrested several times during the Civil Rights Movement, remained active throughout the 1960s in California and Mississippi. Recorded August 3, 2021.
A friend of Kennedy aide Kenny O’Donnell, Garvey went to Parkland Memorial Hospital and was with O’Donnell immediately following the shooting. His late brother, Dr. Jim Garvey, worked at Parkland in 1963 and assisted in the treatment of Gov. Connally and the surgery of Lee Harvey Oswald. Recorded July 6, 2004.
Dr. Garvey passed away on March 15, 2012.
A stock market research analyst in 1963, Gatlin observed the Kennedy motorcade from the twelfth floor of the Mercantile Bank building on Main Street. As a longtime business leader, Gatlin knew many of the political figures and law enforcement officials involved in the assassination story. Recorded on April 17, 2003, June 17, 2008, August 12, 2009, February 21, 2012, April 5, 2013, February 21, 2014, May 12, 2015, February 11, 2016, and December 18, 2017.
Mr. Gatlin passed away on January 26, 2021.
A Dallas housewife in 1963, Gatlin was caring for her one-month-old infant at the time of the assassination. Unable to leave her home, she experienced that weekend through the incessant radio and television coverage. Recorded June 17, 2008, April 5, 2013, February 21, 2014, May 12, 2015, February 11, 2016, and December 18, 2017.
Gauen was a sophomore at Mesquite High School in Mesquite, Texas, at the time of the assassination. The following year she volunteered for President Lyndon Johnson’s campaign. Recorded October 26, 2018.
An administrator at Woodlawn and Parkland Memorial hospitals from 1962 to 1969, Geilich helped coordinate media relations and arrangements with the Connally and Oswald families in the aftermath of the Kennedy assassination. He also spent time with Jack Ruby during his stay at Parkland in late 1966. Recorded April 17, 2007, December 4, 2009, and November 19, 2013.
Professor emeritus at the School of Urban/Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Arlington, Geisel was a consultant to the Dallas County Historical Foundation during the planning of The Sixth Floor exhibit. In the months after the exhibit opened, he conducted a visitor reaction survey. Recorded September 5, 2008.
An FBI agent stationed in Dallas, Gemberling was put in charge of the local investigation into the assassination in March 1964. Recorded July 30, 1997.
Mr. Gemberling passed away on December 4, 2004.
George served as the restoration architect for The Sixth Floor exhibit and was charged with ensuring the historical integrity of the former Texas School Book Depository building during the design and construction of the exhibit. He remained an active member of the project team from 1978 to 1989. Recorded September 11, 2008.
Mr. George passed away on January 16, 2013.
An author, historian and former newspaper editor, George was eleven years old in 1963. She is the author of Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans Faced the Cuban Missile Crisis (2003) and The Assassination of John F. Kennedy: Political Trauma and American Memory (2013). Recorded August 17, 2018.
As president of the Junior Bar Association in Dallas in 1959, Germany hired exotic dancers from Jack Ruby for a stag party for the 1959 annual meeting of the American Bar Association. Supposedly among the distinguished guests at the party was Sen. John F. Kennedy. Recorded November 1, 2005.
Judge Germany passed away on August 21, 2010.
As a longtime U.S. Secret Service agent, Giannoules served on the White House Detail for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. He worked the midnight shift at the Hotel Texas in Fort Worth on November 22, 1963, and was in Austin when the assassination took place. Recorded July 8, 2014, and May 8 and 9, 2015.
The daughter of Kennedy supporters, Gibbs was a fourth grader in Georgetown, Texas, in 1963. Years later, working with a group of friends, she contributed artwork for the Dallas guidebook, Conspiracy A-Go-Go (1988). Recorded January 10, 2020.
A Dallas leader with the AFL-CIO for decades, Gibson worked on the local 1960 Kennedy campaign. On the day of the assassination, he attended the Dallas Trade Mart luncheon. Recorded May 30, 2018.
Eighteen years old in 1963, Giddens saw President Kennedy speak in front of the Hotel Texas in Fort Worth. Recorded November 4, 2013.
An anesthesiologist on the staff of Parkland Memorial Hospital in 1963, Giesecke was briefly in Trauma Room One with President Kennedy before actively participating in the treatment of Governor Connally. Giesecke was with the wounded governor throughout his surgery on November 22, 1963. Recorded June 11, 2010.
Dr. Giesecke passed away on December 24, 2011.
A Massachusetts native, Gilberti saw President Kennedy in 1962. He has maintained an active interest in the assassination over the years, collecting and reading many books. Recorded August 3, 2012.
A native of India, Gill recalls that her late father was deeply impacted by the Kennedy assassination. While on his deathbed in 1966, he said that he had a vision of the late president. Recorded March 21, 2019.
Gillotti was attending Catholic school in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1963 and later moved to San Francisco, where he became active in civil rights and the peace movement. As a musician, he wrote and recorded the song, “Who Killed John Kennedy?” (1992). Gillotti visited The Sixth Floor exhibit on its opening day in 1989. Recorded March 4, 2021.
As a student at San Francisco State College, Gitin spent the summer of 1965 participating in the Summer Community Organizing and Political Education (SCOPE) project of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. She is the author of This Bright Light of Ours: Stories from the Voting Rights Fight (2014). Recorded July 9, 2021.
A lifelong New Yorker, Glass saw John F. Kennedy speak during the 1960 presidential campaign. She was pregnant with her second child when the assassination took place. Recorded April 15, 2013.
A noted author and public speaker, Glass served as Director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History from 2002 to 2011. He spoke at The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza about his book, 50 Great American Places: Essential Historic Sites Across the U.S. (2016). Recorded May 18, 2016.
A first grade student in San Antonio, Gleichenhaus saw President Kennedy on his visit to the city on November 21, 1963. Recorded April 4, 2014.
Standing on a concrete pedestal at the corner of Houston and Elm Streets in Dealey Plaza, eleven-year-old Toni Glover witnessed the Kennedy assassination. Seeing the president’s death, connected emotionally to her abusive childhood, had a traumatic impact on her life. Recorded January 20, 1999, and March 14 and 16, 2012.
As vice president of the University of Texas at Dallas, Godbold was one of the sponsors of the Trade Mart luncheon on November 22, 1963. In 1964, he was appointed director of the significant Goals for Dallas program by Mayor J. Erik Jonsson. Recorded October 11, 2007.
Dr. Godbold passed away on October 8, 2013.
An employee of Texas Bank and Trust, Goebel was attending a luncheon on November 22, 1963, and observed the Kennedy motorcade from a second-floor window on Main Street. Recorded September 5, 2018.
Goldberg began collecting political materials in the 1960s, later specializing in John and Robert Kennedy campaign memorabilia. He was a charter member of the Kennedy Political Items Collectors organization, which started in 1975, and has long served as KPIC’s director and newsletter editor. Recorded February 3, 2017.
A native of Mississippi, Golding had mixed feelings about John F. Kennedy because of his privileged background and the PT-109 incident during World War II. Recorded June 23, 2014.
Goldstein was the son of the late Rueben “Honest Joe” Goldstein, a legendary pawn shop owner in the Deep Ellum area of Dallas. “Honest Joe,” an acquaintance of Jack Ruby, advertised his business on November 22, 1963, by driving up and down Main Street prior to the presidential parade. Recorded February 1, 2013.
Mr. Goldstein passed away on August 21, 2013.
Goldstein’s father passed away on November 21, 1963, the day before the Kennedy assassination, and was buried on Sunday, November 24, shortly after the Oswald shooting. Lynn Goldstein, a Dallas native, was acquainted with the Zapruder family. Recorded September 9, 2013.
A mother of three, Golub was shopping at Bloomingdale’s department store in New York City when the assassination took place. The letter she wrote to Jackie Kennedy on November 25, 1963, was selected for publication in Dr. Ellen Fitzpatrick’s book, Letters to Jackie: Condolences from a Grieving Nation (2010). Recorded August 6, 2010.
Ms. Golub passed away on November 10, 2011.
Gomez was a seventh grader in Dallas at the time of the assassination. Years later she had the opportunity to work with retired Dallas police detective L.C. Graves and hear his eyewitness account of the Oswald shooting. Recorded November 2, 2016.
Gonzalez’s family was active in the Dallas chapter of the Viva Kennedy Club in 1960. Later, as a local funeral home director, he was involved in the 1981 exhumation of Lee Harvey Oswald. Recorded October 28, 2013.
A member of Assault Brigade 2506, Gonzalez served as part of the Bay of Pigs invasion force. Recorded October 29, 2000.
A U.S. Secret Service agent in 1963, Gonzalez was assigned to guard duty for President Kennedy’s limousine after its arrival in Washington, D.C., on the evening of the assassination. Recorded October 15, 2005.
Mr. Gonzalez passed away on June 16, 2018.
In 1963, Good was an officer with the Texas Department of Public Safety. He drove President Kennedy’s secretary, Evelyn Lincoln, and others to Parkland Memorial Hospital after the assassination and later drove several people from Parkland to Dallas Love Field. Recorded October 25, 1999.
Mr. Good passed away on April 23, 2012.
A junior at Jesuit High School in Dallas, Goodwin was at Dallas Love Field and Parkland Memorial Hospital on November 22, 1963. For several hours that day he assisted a CBS cameraman, who was a family friend. Recorded January 31, 2014.
Goodwin was at Dallas Love Field on November 22, 1963. Her brother, Miles Goodwin, assisted a CBS cameraman following the assassination. Recorded April 11, 2015.
As the chief photographer for the Fort Worth Press in 1963, Gordon covered the Kennedys in Fort Worth on November 21 and 22, 1963. Three days later, he photographed Lee Harvey Oswald’s funeral. His images were acquired by The Sixth Floor Museum in 2014 and 2016. Recorded July 23, 2003, June 23 and November 22, 2015, and May 15, 2017.
A former New York Times photographer, Gorton grew up in the Mississippi Delta and was an activist with the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee and Southern Student Organizing Committee. He was present at several historic events of the 1960s, including the 1962 riots during the admission of James Meredith to the University of Mississippi, the 1963 March on Washington, the violence of “Bloody Sunday” in Selma, the 1965 March Against the Vietnam War in Washington, D.C. and the 1968 assassination of Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles. Recorded July 27, 2021.
The Gouldings were living outside of Houston, Texas, in 1963. Both were Kennedy supporters, though Dr. Goulding was initially hesitant to support Lyndon Johnson as president. Recorded January 11, 2016.
Seven years old in 1963, Graham was inspired by President Kennedy to pursue a career as a speechwriter and political consultant. He is the author of Victura: The Kennedys, a Sailboat, and the Sea (2014). Recorded October 1, 2015.
After developing a research interest in the Kennedy assassination in the 1970s, Graham made numerous trips to Dallas and interviewed many law enforcement officials and eyewitnesses. The author of Touching History: My Journey with the JFK Assassination (2018), his views on President Kennedy’s death shifted significantly over time. Recorded March 19, 2019.
An award-winning journalist in Dallas and Los Angeles for more than four decades, Granberry was a Dallas sixth grader in 1963. As a longtime columnist at The Dallas Morning News, he has written numerous stories on the Kennedy assassination and interviewed many key participants. Recorded June 5, July 30, and August 24, 2015.
As assistant chief photographer for the Dallas Morning News in 1963, Grant traveled with the presidential party from Washington, D.C., to Texas and rode in the Dallas motorcade. Recorded May 4, 1994.
Mr. Grant passed away on April 21, 2010.
A comic book writer since the 1980s with publishers such as Marvel and DC Comics, Grant celebrated his tenth birthday one month prior to the assassination. He is the author of the Kennedy assassination comic book miniseries Badlands, first published by Dark Horse Comics between July and December 1991. Recorded August 17, 2018.
A Dallas police detective, Graves was on Lee Harvey Oswald’s left side when he was shot during his transfer on November 24, 1963. Recorded March 21, 1994.
Mr. Graves passed away on February 11, 1995.
An Oak Cliff seventh grader in 1963, Green saw the motorcade on Main Street and went to the Texas School Book Depository immediately after the assassination. His late father, Dallas attorney Lawrence Green, was acquainted with Jack Ruby and J.D. Tippit. Recorded February 14, 2014.
A secretary at the Dallas office of the U.S. Selective Service in 1963, Green saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. Later, during the Vietnam War, her office received numerous bomb threats. Green was interviewed with her daughter, Diane Birdwell. Recorded August 11, 2011.
Green observed the Kennedy motorcade on Cedar Springs Road in Dallas. He and his family were acquainted with Col. D. Harold Byrd, then owner of the Texas School Book Depository building. Recorded January 28, 2013.
A Kansas housewife and mother of two in 1963, Green recalls news of the assassination interrupting the broadcast of the soap opera, As the World Turns. Recorded February 15, 2019.
As the founder of an educational lecture series in the early 1980s, Greenberg personally interviewed more than one thousand figures from film, sports, politics, and the military. In addition to five U.S. presidents, Greenberg’s subjects included John Connally, Lady Bird Johnson, Edward Kennedy, three members of the Warren Commission, and numerous Kennedy aides and advisors, including Dave Powers, Ted Sorensen, Dean Rusk, and Curtis LeMay. Recorded November 27, 2017.
Greenberg was working as a high school aide in New York in 1963. He was partly inspired by the assassination to pursue a law degree and later became associate professor of criminal justice at Miles College in Birmingham, Alabama. Recorded March 22, 2013.
Editor of the Dallas Times Herald‘s editorial page in 1963, Greene was also a columnist, author and noted Dallas and Texas historian. Recorded June 18, 1992.
Mr. Greene passed away on April 5, 2002.
A longtime community and political activist, Greene was involved in local desegregation efforts with the Urban League of Greater Dallas. As part of the Children’s Television Workshop in 1969, she participated in the development of Sesame Street for PBS and later served as director of special events for the White House Conference for Children and Youth during the Carter Administration. Recorded March 9, 2006.
Ms. Greene passed away on October 28, 2015.
A successful restaurateur and Dallas community leader, Greene was living in Mexico at the time of the Kennedy assassination. Recorded June 26 and July 12, 2006.
A Washington, D.C., reporter with Time Magazine in 1963, Greenway covered the White House immediately following the assassination and President Kennedy’s funeral that Monday. He went on to report on the Vietnam War where he was injured and received a Bronze Star from the U.S. Marine Corps. Recorded October 4, 2017.
Senior archivist at the LBJ Presidential Library and Museum, Greenwell joined their staff in 1976. As a Dallas school girl, she saw the Kennedy motorcade on November 22, 1963. Recorded April 19, 2013.
A lifelong Dallas resident, Greer did not support John F. Kennedy in 1960 for religious reasons but was later inspired by the late president to become more politically and socially active. She and her family attended U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson’s speech in Dallas on October 24, 1963, and recalls how the event was marred by right-wing demonstrators. Recorded August 14, 2003, and August 19, 2014.
Ms. Greer passed away on March 26, 2017.
Greer saw the Kennedy motorcade at the corner of Main and Harwood streets. His late mother, Edith Greer, worked at the Dal-Tex building near Dealey Plaza in 1963 and witnessed the Kennedy assassination on Elm Street. Although she never spoke to authorities, she did a video interview with researcher Larry Howard in the early 1990s. Recorded August 5, 2013.
Greer was serving in the U.S. Air Force in Oakdale, Pennsylvania, in 1963. Recorded July 19, 2019.
A longtime film and TV cinematographer and owner of Archival Television Audio Inc., Gries actively tape-recorded audio from television broadcasts between 1959 and 1965 and later amassed an extensive collection of recordings spanning several decades of television history. On November 22, 1963, he captured on quarter-inch tape the only known sound recording of the first NBC TV news announcement of the assassination and the initial network coverage. Recorded August 24, 2021.
An Oak Cliff native, Griffin saw the presidential party arrive at Dallas Love Field on November 22, 1963. After the assassination he went to Parkland Memorial Hospital and briefly saw the inside of the Kennedy limousine. Recorded July 21, 2010.
A Fort Worth native, Griffin was outside the Hotel Texas when the Kennedys arrived on November 21, 1963. At the height of the Civil Rights Movement, Griffin traveled across the country and became active with the Black Panthers. Recorded January 30, 2013, February 8, 2014, and November 19, 2015.
Griffin was working as a bricklayer at a construction site at the corner of Tenth and Denver Streets in Oak Cliff at the time of the assassination. He later heard shots fired nearby and witnessed the immediate aftermath of the shooting of Officer J.D. Tippit. Recorded November 7, 2008.
Griffin, a onetime Assistant U.S. Attorney, served as Assistant Staff Counsel to the Warren Commission in 1964. He was specifically assigned to the Jack Ruby investigation. Recorded October 11, 2013, October 30, 2018, and September 22, 2019.
A Ministry of Defence police officer in the United Kingdom from 1971 to 1994, Griggs became interested in the Kennedy assassination in the mid-1960s and made more than a dozen visits to Dallas. The author of No Case to Answer (2005), and a founding member of the international research group Dealey Plaza UK, Griggs was a prolific writer and speaker on the subject for many years. Recorded March 30, 2007.
Mr. Griggs passed away on May 19, 2019.
A longtime assassination researcher and author of several books, including JFK: The Case for Conspiracy (1976) and High Treason (1989), Groden was a photographic consultant during the development of The Sixth Floor exhibit in the 1980s and was later a consultant to director Oliver Stone on the film JFK (1991). Recorded June 30, 1994.
As director of the Miller Funeral Home in Fort Worth, Groody served as the undertaker for Lee Harvey Oswald and organized his funeral on Monday, November 25. In 1981, he was involved in the exhumation of Oswald and briefly viewed the body at Baylor Medical Center. Recorded October 23, 2006.
Mr. Groody passed away on October 7, 2010.
A pioneering Houston neurosurgeon, Grossman was a resident at Parkland Memorial Hospital in 1963. He recalled being in Trauma Room One during the treatment of President Kennedy and examining the president’s head wound. Grossman was reluctant to share his eyewitness account for many years. Recorded October 4, 2003.
Dr. Grossman passed away on October 7, 2021.
Inspired by President Kennedy, shortly after the assassination Grossman and her husband joined the Peace Corps. They served in Colombia in South America from 1964 to 1966. Recorded April 17, 2018.
As a U.S. Army photographer, Gudjohnsen was stationed at Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas, in 1963. He later spent more than three decades as a photographer and assignments editor at Dallas ABC affiliate, WFAA-TV, where he covered a number of assassination-related stories. Recorded September 30, 2015.
Guerrero was raised in Dallas and was attending Emory University in Atlanta when he became active in the Civil Rights Movement. Guerrero was the first chairman of the Southern Student Organizing Committee, which focused on several political and social issues including civil rights and anti-Vietnam War activism. Guerrero was also co-founder of the long running counterculture newspaper, The Great Speckled Bird. Recorded July 16, 2021.
A student at Thomas Jefferson High School in 1963, Gump saw the Kennedys at Dallas Love Field. His late father, a local attorney, attended the Trade Mart luncheon. Lyndon Johnson called his father’s law office shortly after the assassination. Recorded February 27, 2014.
A longtime California designer, Gurr was involved in the development of several attractions for the 1964 New York World’s Fair, including the popular Ford Magic Skyway. Ironically, at the time of the Kennedy assassination, he was working on an Abraham Lincoln exhibit for the State of Illinois pavilion. Recorded October 4, 2011.
A Dallas native, Gush skipped school to see the Kennedy motorcade on Lemmon Avenue. Her mother was a waitress at Jack Ruby’s Carousel Club in 1963. Recorded October 3, 2013.
An acclaimed photojournalist, Guzy has won the Pulitzer Prize a record four times. Her coverage has included military intervention in Haiti, Kosovo, and the 2010 Haitian earthquake. She participated in a public program to mark the centennial of the Pulitzer Prize. Recorded September 21, 2016.