All Oral Histories
An engineer doing survey work at Parkland Memorial Hospital in 1963, Lacy observed the Kennedy motorcade. Several of his conservative coworkers clapped when they learned of the assassination. Recorded January 24, 2013.
President of the Dallas Textile Club in 1963, Ladd saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. He was acquainted with both Abraham Zapruder and George de Mohrenschildt. Recorded September 21, 2012.
A Dallas Morning News photographer from 1953 to 1996, Laird photographed the Kennedy motorcade at the corner of Main and Harwood Streets. On that Friday and Sunday, Laird covered the scene at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Recorded September 8, 2011.
Mr. Laird passed away on August 15, 2016.
A former graduate student at the University of North Texas, Lambert spent two years compiling and producing a feature-length documentary on the history of Dealey Plaza, the Kennedy assassination, and The Sixth Floor Museum. His interest in the assassination was initially inspired by Oliver Stone’s 1991 film JFK. Recorded August 23, 2005.
A native Dallasite, Laminack was working as a secretary on Commerce Street in 1963. She observed the Kennedy motorcade with coworkers on Main Street. Recorded February 12, 2013.
A Dallas fifth grader in 1963, Landis photographed the Kennedy motorcade on Harwood Street. Recorded May 1, 2014.
As a U.S. Secret Service agent on the White House Detail, Landis was assigned at various times in the early 1960s to President Kennedy, Mrs. Kennedy, and the Kennedy children. On November 22, 1963, he was on the running boards of the follow-up car directly behind the presidential limousine. Recorded September 12, 2016.
Landon was a student at John J. Pershing Elementary in Dallas in 1963. He was with his classmate Fred Ruby, the nephew of Jack Ruby, on Sunday, November 24. Recorded March 22, 2010.
Assistant administrator for professional services at Parkland Memorial Hospital in 1963, Landregan was heavily involved in hospital activities during the treatment of Kennedy, Connally, and Oswald. He was briefly in Trauma Room One, worked with Secret Service and officials, and later witnessed Oswald’s autopsy, all while supervising public relations throughout the weekend. Recorded August 22 and September 10, 2002, August 26, 2013, November 22, 2015, May 4, 2016, February 7, 2017, and March 7, 2018.
Mr. Landregan passed away on November 25, 2018.
Longtime coach of the Dallas Cowboys football team, Landry recalled the infamous game the Cowboys were forced to play against the Cleveland Browns shortly after the assassination on Sunday, November 24, 1963. Recorded April 18, 1995.
Mr. Landry passed away on February 12, 2000.
The owner of Lane Container Company in Dallas, Lane was hired by the Dallas County Historical Foundation in 1988 to produce hundreds of replica schoolbook boxes for the two recreated evidentiary areas in The Sixth Floor exhibit. Recorded June 26, 2009.
An award-winning young artist, Langley, as a twelve-year-old student at Lakehill Preparatory School in Dallas, created a piece in memory of President Kennedy that was donated to The Sixth Floor Museum in 2013. This conversation about her art was recorded as part of a Museum teacher workshop. Recorded July 17, 2014.
A native of Iran, Larijani was thirteen years old at the time of the assassination. In 2018, as a legally blind artist in California, he spent four months crafting a ceramic piece in memory of John F. Kennedy, which he donated to The Sixth Floor Museum. Recorded May 16, 2019.
A native of Illinois, Larrabee and his late parents were longtime friends and business associates of Hyman Rubenstein, the eldest brother of Jack Ruby. Recorded September 21, 2015.
A founding member of the Dallas Theater Center, Latimer saw President Kennedy’s motorcade on November 22, 1963. Latimer later played the title character in the theater center’s 1974 production, Jack Ruby, All-American Boy. Recorded April 9, 2012.
Mr. Latimer passed away on May 14, 2018.
A student at Marquette University in Wisconsin in 1963, Laughlin’s reaction to the assassination was captured in a photograph published on the front page of the school newspaper. Recorded April 11, 2015.
Lavin is an award-winning folksinger and songwriter based in New York who has recorded more than twenty solo albums since 1981. After visiting The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza, she was inspired to write and record the song, “The Sixth Floor,” which appeared on her album Please Don’t Make Me Too Happy (1995). Recorded August 7, 2013, and August 8 and 9, 2014.
A native of Emory, Texas, Lawe was among the first African Americans to graduate from her community’s desegregated school system. In 1971, she became a teacher at Hillcrest High School in Dallas during its first year of full integration. In addition to forty years in education, she has been active in historic preservation, founding the A.C. McMillan African American Museum in Rains County and writing the genealogical book, From Wolf to Wolfwood (2011). Recorded June 6, 2016.
As a reporter for the Clovis News-Journal in Clovis, New Mexico, Lawrenzi believes his paper was among the first to report the death of Officer J.D. Tippit. In 1968, while working for the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, Lawrenzi covered Sen. Robert Kennedy in California and the aftermath of his assassination. Recorded June 30, 2017.
A U.S. Secret Service agent assigned to the White House detail during the Kennedy years, Lawson was in charge of security in Dallas and did 10 days of advance work before the presidential party’s arrival. In the motorcade, he rode in the lead car with Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry. Recorded September 5, 2003.
Mr. Lawson passed away on November 7, 2019.
Leal is assistant professor of history at the University of California, Riverside. His master’s thesis at California State University, Northridge, was entitled, “Paving the Road to the White House or to La Panamericana? The Post-Electoral Hopes of the Southern California Viva Kennedy Clubs, 1960-1963” (2011). Recorded June 7, 2021.
Leavelle was the Dallas police detective immortalized in Bob Jackson’s Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald. Wearing a light-colored suit and a cowboy hat, Leavelle was handcuffed to Oswald and helped wrestle Jack Ruby to the ground. Two decades earlier, Leavelle survived the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Recorded on June 10 and August 22, 2002, June 2, 2005, January 24 and October 12, 2007, November 19, 2008, September 10, 2010, November 10, 2012, and January 30, 2017.
Mr. Leavelle passed way on August 29, 2019.
As a student at the University of Ohio, Ledford saw Sen. John F. Kennedy during the 1960 campaign. Following the assassination, he and a group of friends drove approximately 800 miles roundtrip to witness the Kennedy funeral procession in Washington, D.C. Recorded September 8, 2017, and April 4, 2018.
Longtime leaders in the Dallas arts community, the Lees attended the Trade Mart luncheon. Active Democrats at the time, Schatzie Lee was a member of the Dallas chapter of the Operation Support program, in support of President Kennedy’s administration, and George Lee volunteered during the 1960 presidential campaign. Recorded June 14, 2013.
A lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1963, Lee commanded the Silent Drill Platoon and was involved in numerous ceremonies at the White House and Camp David during the Kennedy years. After the assassination, he led the “Death Watch” rotations at the White House and in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda. Recorded November 16, 2007, May 11, 2013, and November 29, 2017.
Major Lee passed away on December 8, 2019.
Lee was a dedicated civil rights activist in Texas and California throughout the 1960s and 1970s. She worked for a variety of organizations, including as a specialist with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Recorded June 29, 2011.
Ms. Lee passed away on September 2, 2017.
A former Texas state senator (1981-96) and Dallas city councilman (1974-80), Leedom was Dallas County chairman of the Republican Party in 1963. He was among the political leaders who publicly urged Dallasites to greet President Kennedy with respect during his visit. Recorded July 16, 2010.
Mr. Leedom passed away on May 31, 2011.
A photographer and Emmy-winning documentarian for The Dallas Morning News, Leeson won a 2004 Pulitzer Prize for his images of the war in Iraq. He participated in a public program to mark the centennial of the Pulitzer Prize. Recorded September 21, 2016.
Serving in the U.S. Marine Corps at the time of the assassination, Legere was stationed in Quantico, Virginia. He marched in the funeral procession for President Kennedy on Monday, November 25, 1963. Recorded October 20, 2014.
An Emmy Award-winning broadcast journalist, best known for the long-running PBS NewsHour program and for moderating twelve presidential debates (1988-2012), Lehrer was a reporter with the Dallas Times Herald in 1963. Assigned to Dallas Love Field, he witnessed the Secret Service remove the bubbletop from the presidential limousine shortly before the Dallas motorcade. Following the assassination, he covered Dallas police headquarters. A prolific novelist later in life, Lehrer authored Top Down: A Novel of the Kennedy Assassination (2013). Recorded November 1, 2013.
Mr. Lehrer passed away on January 23, 2020.
The daughter of Louisiana Kennedy supporters, LeJeune was days away from her fourth birthday when the assassination took place. Her early memories inspired a lifelong interest in President Kennedy. Recorded January 21, 2014.
Visiting Dealey Plaza on May 24, 1964, the Lemons filmed and photographed the FBI and Secret Service reenactment of the Kennedy assassination. They donated their images to The Sixth Floor Museum in 2012. Recorded May 11, 2012.
Ms. Jan Lemons passed away on March 23, 2020.
In 1963, Lenhart lived in a rural farming community in Missouri where her family had settled in the 1850s. She was in the third grade at the time of the Kennedy assassination. Recorded November 11, 2014.
Emeritus Professor of English at Wilkes University in Pennsylvania, Lennon is the late Norman Mailer’s archivist, editor, and authorized biographer. A native of Massachusetts, Lennon was living near Boston at the time of the assassination. Recorded October 29, 2015.
In 1965, Leong joined a group of Ann Arbor residents to sponsor a trip by Marina Oswald to visit their community and take part in an eight-week program at the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan. Recorded October 17, 2012.
Ms. Leong passed away on July 31, 2019.
A Broadway performer and writer, LePage is author of the book for the musical, Oswald (2016), which tells the story of Lee Harvey Oswald from dual perspectives. LePage was interviewed with his partner, composer Josh Sassanella. Recorded October 15, 2018.
Leubsdorf served as Washington, D.C., bureau chief for The Dallas Morning News from 1981 to 2009. Prior to that, he worked for the Associated Press (1960-75), covering civil rights in New Orleans and the Kennedy to Nixon administrations. Recorded October 11, 2019.
Marvin Levin, a Dallas attorney, knew Jack Ruby and was involved in setting up his Carousel Club. Marvin’s wife, Shirley, also a Dallas attorney, was the daughter of legendary Dallas pawn shop owner “Honest Joe” Goldstein, an acquaintance of Jack Ruby. Recorded December 5, 2012.
A student at Hillcrest High School in Dallas, Levine saw the Kennedy motorcade on Lemmon Avenue. Recorded April 12, 2018.
Levine was a high school junior in Sulphur Springs, Texas, in 1963. Later, as a student at the University of Wisconsin, he was caught up in campus riots involving the National Guard during the Vietnam War. Recorded April 12, 2018.
An award-winning photojournalist, Levine covered the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Middle East for more than three decades. She participated in a public program to mark the centennial of the Pulitzer Prize. Recorded September 21, 2016.
As a fourteen-year-old student at St. Mark’s School in Dallas, Lewins was selected to give the opening prayer at a service held at the John F. Kennedy Memorial to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the assassination on November 22, 1972. His late mother, Bette Lewins, was a lab technician at Parkland Memorial Hospital at the time of the assassination. Recorded February 5, 2021.
The widow of Jack Ruby’s first attorney, Tom Howard, Lewis vividly recalled her late husband’s involvement in the case and the controversy surrounding his death. Recorded April 7, 2004.
A native of Beijing, China, Li was nine years old at the time of the assassination and later served in the People’s Liberation Army. Li, who moved to the United States in 1983, is professor of history at the University of Central Oklahoma and author of several books about the Vietnam War and Chinese military history. Recorded June 17, 2021.
A prominent researcher who became interested in the assassination in 1964, Lifton is the author of the 1980 bestseller Best Evidence and writer and executive producer of the companion documentary, Best Evidence: The Research Video (1990). Lifton, the first to publish controversial autopsy photos of President Kennedy in 1988, continues to research, write and speak on the subject. Recorded March 29 and April 1, 2019.
A longtime associate professor of history at Southern Methodist University, Linden was one of the founding board members of the Dallas County Historical Foundation. A prolific writer on the Civil War, he was also the author of Desegregating Schools in Dallas: Four Decades in the Federal Courts (1995). Recorded August 4, 1997, May 24, 2006, and June 9, 2008.
Dr. Linden passed away on June 26, 2012.
A junior at Jesuit High School in Dallas in 1963, Lindley and a friend drove to Parkland Memorial Hospital upon learning of the assassination. Earlier that year, Lindley had applied for a summer job at the Texas School Book Depository but was not hired. Recorded February 6, 2017.
As advertising manager for Disneyland in Anaheim, California, Lindquist hosted Sen. John F. Kennedy in 1959 and worked directly with Robert Kennedy during the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles. He also made preparations for Nikita Khrushchev to visit Disneyland, though the trip was canceled due to security concerns. Recorded August 21, 2014.
Mr. Lindquist passed away on February 28, 2016.
A longtime lineman with Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, Lindsay was working on an assignment at Dallas Love Field following the assassination. He observed Jackie Kennedy’s bloodstained clothing and the late president’s casket. Recorded June 25, 2009.
Lindstrom was a high school student in Oklahoma at the time of the assassination. Recorded July 19, 2019.
A history professor at Indiana University Bloomington and editor of the Journal of American History, Linenthal is a leading voice in the study of violence on the American landscape and the commemoration of tragic sites. His books include Preserving Memory: The Struggle to Create America’s Holocaust Museum (1995) and The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory (2001). Recorded November 20, 2001, May 16, 2012, and February 19, 2013.
A film and television actor best known for playing Det. Frank Tripp on the TV seriesCSI:Miami, Linn is a native Texan and had recently turned seven years old at the time of the assassination. Recorded June 15, 2007.
A native Dallasite, Linville saw President Kennedy during his visit to Baylor Hospital to see Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn in 1961 and later saw the presidential motorcade on Main Street shortly before the assassination. Linville’s late mother was an active Kennedy supporter. Recorded July 13, 2011.
A professional musician who sang backing vocals on recordings by artists such as Buddy Holly and Roy Orbison, Linville worked at a small radio station in Clovis, New Mexico, in 1963. He preserved that station’s Associated Press wire releases and later donated them to The Sixth Floor Museum. Recorded March 26, 1999.
Mr. Linville passed away on November 3, 2001.
Little was born in Trauma Room One at Parkland Memorial Hospital on November 29, 1963, one week after the assassination. As a college radio broadcaster in 1983, he recorded an interview with Nellie Connally. Recorded August 7, 2019.
A noted composer whose music has been performed around the world, Little is the composer of the opera JFK, which had its world premiere at the Fort Worth Opera in 2016. Little was interviewed alongside JFK librettist Royce Vavrek. Recorded March 24 and April 15, 2016, and September 30, 2020.
A Canadian native, Litwin became interested in the Kennedy assassination in 1975. He documented his shift from conspiracy theorist to lone gunman researcher in his book, I Was a Teenage JFK Conspiracy Freak (2018). He is currently writing a follow-up book on the assassination. Recorded March 5, 2020.
Onetime president and CEO of the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts, Lively was a junior at Southern Methodist University in 1963 and was asked to play “Taps” on his trumpet on November 22 as classes were dismissed at a local elementary school. Recorded July 16, 2004, and May 29, 2008.
Livingston is the daughter of the late Clifton C. Carter, a Texas political insider and longtime administrative assistant to Lyndon B. Johnson. Part of the 1963 Texas visit, Carter witnessed the swearing-in aboard Air Force One following the assassination. Kathleen Carter Livingston lived between Austin, Texas, and Washington, D.C., in the early 1960s and has remained lifelong friends with Luci Baines Johnson. Recorded June 3, 2016.
A local precinct chair for the Republican Party in 1960, Loflin was acquainted with U.S. Congressman Bruce Alger. She was at home with her youngest son when the assassination took place. Recorded April 26, 2013.
A Fort Worth native, Logan worked on an all-female assembly line at Texas Instruments in 1963. She recalls personnel challenges when African American women later joined the workforce. Recorded October 12, 2012.
A Dallas playwright and longtime educator, Logan wrote the play Jack Ruby, All-American Boy, which was produced by the Dallas Theater Center in 1974. Recorded April 9, 2012.
The founder of the international G. Loomis fishing rod and accessories company, Loomis was serving in the U.S. Navy aboard the U.S.S. Dixie in 1963. His ship was put on high alert immediately after the assassination. Recorded January 11, 2007.
A secretary at Guardian Insurance in Dallas, Looney saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street. Recorded August 21, 2018.
A newlywed Kennedy supporter in Dallas, Loop took a photograph of the presidential motorcade on November 22, 1963. Recorded October 25, 2016.
An Oak Cliff high school senior in 1963, Lopez saw the Kennedy motorcade on Main Street and later went to Parkland Memorial Hospital. Earlier that day, he tried to park his car near the grassy knoll in Dealey Plaza but was forced to leave by an unidentified official. Recorded August 4, 2010.
An internationally recognized singer and guitarist, Lopez scored his first hit single in 1963. A Dallas native, he briefly worked at Jack Ruby’s Vegas Club in the 1950s and went on to become acquainted with Kennedy family members, Frank Sinatra, and other notable figures. Recorded October 5, 2012.
Mr. Lopez passed away on August 11, 2020.
A German artist born shortly before President Kennedy’s 1961 inauguration, Lorenzen has incorporated Kennedy and assassination-related imagery into numerous paintings. Four of his original works are in the Collection of The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza. Recorded May 2, 2014, August 11, 2017, and September 28, 2020.
A sixth grader in Austin, Texas, Louis was planning on attending the presidential banquet on the evening of November 22, 1963, when the assassination took place. She wrote Jackie Kennedy over two dozen letters over the next six months, one of which was included in Dr. Ellen Fitzpatrick’s book, Letters to Jackie: Condolences from a Grieving Nation (2010). Recorded October 4, 2010.
A social studies teacher at an all African-American school in Dallas in 1963, Louise shared insight into race relations in the city and her students’ reaction to President Kennedy’s death. In 1965, Louise opened a clothing store called Dashika House, which was the first store in south Dallas owned by an African-American woman. Recorded May 18, 2007.
Ms. Louise passed away on May 24, 2012.
Lovell joined NASA in 1962 and became a recognized Apollo astronaut. He served as command module pilot during the Apollo 8 mission in 1968 (the first mission to orbit the moon) and as commander of the Apollo 13 mission in 1970. At the time of the assassination, he was with his friend, astronaut Neil Armstrong, who would later become the first man to walk on the moon in July 1969. Recorded January 17, 2007.
A lifelong Dallasite with a local heritage dating back to the 1840s, Loving was a Dallas police officer in 1963 and went to Dealey Plaza after the assassination. His late uncle, J.T. Yates, was allegedly involved in local organized crime and knew Jack Ruby. Recorded August 28, 2009.
Mr. Loving passed away on April 6, 2011.
A longtime archivist and administrator with the National Archives, Lowe was named director of the George W. Bush Presidential Library in 2009. He participated in a Museum panel discussion on the evolution of presidential legacies. Recorded February 23, 2011.
The Kennedys’ personal photographer for many years, Lowe photographed John and Jackie Kennedy frequently from 1958 to 1961, taking some 40,000 images. During the 1960 presidential campaign, Lowe served as the official campaign photographer. Recorded October 9 and November 21, 1997.
Mr. Lowe passed away on May 12, 2001.
The granddaughter of Massachusetts Congressman John A. Sullivan, Lowe was acquainted with the Kennedy family and married to Jacques Lowe, the Kennedys’ personal photographer, from 1953 to 1960. Recorded January 8, 2004.
Ms. Lowe passed away on February 13, 2020.
The Lowenbergs met at Harvard Law School in the early 1960s and moved to Dallas after getting married in 1966. Longtime socially active attorneys, both have served on a number of community boards over the years. Julie Lowenberg’s late father, Judge Irving Goldberg, attended the Dallas Trade Mart luncheon and advised his longtime friend, Lyndon Johnson, regarding the oath of office shortly after the assassination. Recorded October 8, 2021.
Lower is the nephew of the late John Fisher, a prominent Dallas attorney in the 1960s and 1970s. Fisher knew Jack Ruby and believed that Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald to become a hero. Recorded February 27, 2007.
An art historian, Lubin is a professor at Wake Forest University and the author of Shooting Kennedy: JFK and the Culture of Images (2003). He turned 13 years old on the day that Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald. Recorded February 19, 2008.
Lukefahr is the nephew and namesake of the late Father Oscar Huber, who administered the Last Rites to President Kennedy at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Lukefahr was inspired by his uncle to join the same Vincentian order of priests. Recorded February 20, 2015.
Father Lukefahr passed away August 10, 2015.
Lummus was attending college in New Jersey in 1963. Her late father, deeply impacted by the assassination, soon developed shingles, which his doctor attributed to his emotional state following the president’s death. Recorded September 24, 2019.
A Dallas housewife raising a large family in 1963, Luther closely followed the television news coverage of the Kennedy assassination on local ABC affiliate WFAA-TV. Recorded April 20, 2010.
Lydia served in the Peace Corps in Sierra Leon, West Africa. A longtime civil rights activist, she has worked with the NAACP since attending college in the 1960s. Lydia participated in a Museum panel discussion featuring local civic leaders. Recorded February 4, 2021.
A Dallas Public Works employee in 1963, Lyle watched the motorcade on Main Street. In 1964, he worked on Dealey Plaza survey maps for the Warren Commission and for Dallas Area Rapid Transit in the late 1980s. Lyle’s father, a conservative businessman, was a member of the John Birch Society in 1963. Recorded October 28, 2005.
A 9-year-old student in Amarillo, Texas, in 1963, Lyle felt abandoned after the assassination since both of her parents worked for news organizations. Her father, the late Austin F. Schneider, was news director and chief anchor for the local NBC affiliate KGNC-TV, and her mother, the late Sue Schneider, was a composition editor for the Amarillo Globe Times and the Amarillo Daily News. Recorded October 28, 2005.
As staff photographer for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) from 1962 to 1964, Lyon covered several key moments of the Civil Rights Movement, including the March on Washington. At the time of the assassination, he was roommates with future congressman John Lewis. Recorded March 1, 2021.
An active Kennedy assassination researcher and enthusiast, Lyons has made more than 20 visits to Dealey Plaza since 1993. He has met and communicated with several Kennedy family members and individuals connected to the assassination story, including Ruth Paine and several eyewitnesses. Recorded February 20, 2006.
A student at Kimball High School in 1963, Lyons saw the Kennedys arrive at Dallas Love Field. He later recalls driving by the Texas Theatre in Oak Cliff around the time that Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested. Recorded September 30, 2014.